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British History

QuestionAnswer
Domestic farming & husbandry Raising plants and animals as food Wooden plow Neolithic People
Stones from Wales 29 1/2 stones-some 9ft moon goes through cycle in 29 1/2 days Stonehenge
c.600-c.2000 B.C. Celtic Period
Used Bronze and Iron Weapons 600 BC Celts & Neolithic meet 200 BC Celts dominated England Celtic Conquest
Unknown No central pantheon (group of gods) gods are localized no temples-worshiped in oak groves with mistletoe Celtic Religion
Celtic priesthood that functioned as judge Druids
Trading with continent and Mediterranean areas Expanding agriculture and mining Women important leaders Celtic Life & Culture
Make war with other people Iron Age
55BC-Started picking fights with Celts Went over with 2 legions and found they can fight. Pushed back to river. He was almost defeated 54BC took 4 legions to defeat Celts...Won!! Julius Caesar
55 BC- AD 410 Roman Period
AD 43-60 Celts in tribes Celtic Queen Boudicca-formed rebellion-defeated AD 60-things calmed down Claudius
Farmer 78-84 Conquered midlands and N. England Expanded Romans Governor Agricola
674-781 Northumbrian Renaissance
673-735 bi-product of Northumbrian Ren. Monk-prolific author Father of English History Biblical commentaries Scientific works Northumbrian Renaissance: Venerable Bede
628-689 Founded 2 Monasteries: Jarrow and Wearmouth 5 trips to Rome from England purchased books for library Benedict Biscop
Roman emperor who built a wall 8ft tall and wide Hadrian
Anglo-Saxon Sources Gildas Venerable Bede Procopius Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Celt-British Churchman-sermons 3 parts Lament the fact the British have fallen away from God De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae Concerning Conquest of Britain Gildas
Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum History of Church and People Father of English History Written after the fact Anglo-Saxon Source:Venerable Bede
De Bello Gotthico War With Goths Concerned with E. Roman Empire What's happening in Britain is not his concern Procopius
Series of manuscripts 6 mss written in Old English Wrote about what happened in that year not sure how reliable Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Celts invited Saxons to come to England to help protect them in exchange for some land. First Settlement: British Invitation
British and Saxons Anglo-Saxons wanted land because they started getting comfortable First Settlement: Quarrel
One doesn't rely primarily on God for salvation Pelagianism
Not sure on details British defeated Anglo-Saxons Battle of Mons Badonicus
Led British troops against Saxons in Battle of Mons Badonicus Source for King Arthur legends Ambrosius Aurelianus
50 yrs of peace Second wave of Saxon move-in series of British victories Most of England will be in the hands of Anglo-Saxons Celts now have to adapt to Saxon ways-speak Old English Second Settlement: Saxon Victories
Angles or Angli: Central Peninsula Saxon or Saxones: Tip of P Jutes: Bottom of Peninsula Divisions of Anglo-Saxons
Jutes: Frisians, Franks, Danes-French Divisions of Anglo-Saxons: Modern Scholarship
10 South of Humber River: Lindsey, E. Anglia, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, Kent, Mercia, M. Anglia, Hwicce, Magonsaeton 2 North of Humber River: Bernicia and Deira Northumbria: Bernicia and Deira combined Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms: Confederations & Chieftains
Term used by Bede translated "Britain Ruler" Bretwaldas
Wide/Broad Ruler Brytenwealda
Aelle Ceawlin Aethelbeint Raedwaeld Edwin Oswiu Oswald Seven Bretwaldas
Celtic people leaving England headed south to Brittany No major battles Celts never completely wiped out Continued Battles against British
Surrey Hwicce Magonsaeton Lindsey Middle Anglia Unification of England: Ending of Some Kingdoms
Kent Sussex Essex Wessex East Anglia Mercia Northumbria Heptarchy (700)- Seven Kingdoms
First True English King Dominated Kent, Sussex, Essex, E. Anglia Threat of Danish invasions-smaller kingdoms looking for protection Egbert of Wessex
Wessex Mercia Northumbria Kingdoms by 823
Earliest evidence of Bede According to Bede the Brits refused to convert A-S to Christianity Pagan A-S never converted Brits were being beaten up by A-S Bad rap to Brits from Bede British Christianity
Not Irish-Welsh Slave escaped captured by Irish Father was priest Become priest himself Established Christianity in Ireland Irish Christianity: St. Patrick
Established monastery northeast coast of England Lindisfarne Scottish Lindistarne sent missionaries back to the continent Bobbio-Italy Irish Christianity: Aidan
Celtic mission brought Christianity to North England and continent Churches being founded-Irish flavor Irish Christianity: Missions and Influence
Sent missionaries to England because he believed there was no Christianity in England Roman Christianity: Pope Gregory
Archbishop of Canterbury Sent by Gregory to convert English Apprehensive Lands in Kent-goes to King Aethelberht Gets church from king Augustine converts King to Christianity Queen Bertha Christian Roman Christianity: Augustine
Aethelberht's son not a Christian Irish Christianity: Kentish Decline of Christianity
King is converted-Kingdom is converted doesn't mean subjects are converting Top to Down except for Irish they would move into an area and start preaching never grand sweep of Roman Christianity or Irish Conversions
Council in Northumbria King Edwin-Irish Queen-Roman King calls clergy of Irish and Roman to decide which is right Decides for Roman Only affected Northumbrian court not entire country Celtic vs. Roman Christianity Synod of Whitby
Archbishop Took place of Deusdedit Begins shift in A-S church Lower clergy-priest higher clergy-3 bishops for england Theodore of Tarsus
New bishops Annual council-synod Roman model Anglo-Saxon Church
A-S sent missionaries to Germanic speaking lands Frisia-Holland Thuringia-Germany Hesse-Germany Continental Missions
Went to Frisia- Northwestern Europe Pope made him bishop on the move establish church and bishop lay ground work for Boniface Willibrord
Followed Willibrord traveled to Hesse and Thuringia Made bishop by pope established Christianity martyrdom by Friscians Boniface
Uncle Athelm Bishop of Winchester Restored proper clerical practices and lifestyles, renewing learning, reconstructing administration Archbishop of Canterbury Dunstan of Canterbury
Abbot of Abingolon-Bishop of Winchester promoted programs of reform at W. practices of celibacy and austerity among priests and monks communal living Aethelwold of Winchester
Set of rules for monastic practices Regularis Concordia
Danish Monk and Priest from North England Trained by monks in Fleury promoted reform to some extent Oswald of York
Both monastic and ecclesiastical spiritual and scholarly laity-provided instruction matters of faith, through sermons works were Old English rather than Latin benefit clergy and laity Reform of Monastic
Restoration of monasticism in England Radiated outward from Canterbury, York and Winchester Beginning of Monastic
Noble Council Not a good king-didn't take advice well Nickname-"Bad Council" Son of Edgar Killed at young age Reigned for 38 years Aethelraed Unraed
No objections to him being King Fair, honored laws supportive of church Christianized ruler-baptized Went on pilgrimage to Rome-spoke with pope Danish Rule: Cnut
Raids from Denmark 40 yrs of raiding parties Hitting churches Mostly in Northumbria Christianity Wanes Bishop of York-only bishop libraries destroyed, worship disrupted Danish Invasions 793
earldoms-Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria, East Anglia Brought in Earls Shires-County Cnut's son Harold Harefoot takes over Harthacnut King Danish Rule: Divisions of England
Pious Son of Aethelraed More French than England Well-Liked Reign marked by tension-house of Godwin Edward's wife-daughter of Godwin House of Wessex: Edward the Confessor
Count of Boulonge Men of Wessex attacked Boulonge men Count was offended-demanded Edward do something Edward demanded Godwin to take revenge Godwin refuses Edward and Godwin gather armies Earls refused to support Godwin Godwin exiled House of Wessex: Civil War Averted
Appoints Normans to various church positions in England Bishop of London-head of English church Doesn't go over well with English viewed as intruders/foreigners Robert forced off throne Edward's Ecclesiastical Appointments
Harold Godwinson Harold Hardrada William the Conqueror Claimants to the Throne
Earl of Wessex Trustworthy Got along with Edward: sub-regulus Chosen by witan to be king Harold Godwinson
Viking Connection to Cnut Harold Hardrada
illegitimate child harsh, mean man William the Conqueror
Jan 5, 1066 no heir on deathbed-in presence of Norman Lord Edward names Harold G. as King Witan recognize Edward's suggestion and make Harold G. King Death of Edward
Harold Godwinson Last Anglo-Saxon King
Harold G. Fights Harold H. Battle at Stamford Bridge
Battle of Hastings: Willam and Harold H. Victory to William fought on horseback Normans defeated Anglo-Saxons William's Invasion
West Saxon Kentish (Jutish) Anglian (Northumbrian and Mercian) Dialects
Created by: jlow0118