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Anatomy Exam 2.


Axial Skeleton -Vertebral Column -Supports Rib Cage -Serves as a point of attachment for pelvic girdle. -Protects the spinal cord. -consists of a series of separate bones named for their location. 1. Seven cervical (neck) 2. Twelve thoracic (chest) 3. Five lumbar (lower back)
Axial Skeleton -Vertebral Column(2) 4. Five sacral 5.Three to five coccygeal -Normal Curvatures
Axial Skeleton -Normal Curvatures. -Cervical and lumbar : convex anteriorly -Thoracic and sacral : concave anteriorly -Provide suooprt and balance.
Axial Skeleton. - Abnormalities. Lordosis: exaggerated lumbar curvature. Kyphosis: increased roundness of the thoracic curvature. Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature that occurs most often in the thoracic region.
Axial Skeleton - Intervertebral Disks -Prevent vertebrae from grinding against one another. -Absorb shock. -Allow motion between vertebrae.
Axial Skeleton -Vertebrae Body: anterior portion Vertebral foramin: canal for spinal cord. Bony projections serve as sites for muscle attachment. Atlas(1): supports the head; allows head movement up and down.
Axial Skeleton -Vertebrae(2) Axis: serves as a pivot for the atlas; allows head movement from side to side. sacrum: fused sacral vertebrae; forms posterior wall of the pelvic cavity. Coccyx: formed from a fusion of three to five vertebrae.
Axial Skeleton -The Rib Cage Protects the heart and lungs, provides support for the bones of the pectoral girdle.
Axial Skeleton -The Ribs Twelve pair(s) that connect to the thoracic vertebrae. The True ribs are seven upper pairs that connect directly to the sternum by costal cartilages. Then, False ribs next five pair that attach indirectly to the sternum or not at all (floating ribs)
Axial Skeleton -The Sternum Flat, blade shaped bone that is composed of three bones that fuse called manubrium, body, xiphoid process.
Appendicular Skeleton -Pectoral Girdle (1) [Clavicle] Clavicles that articulate medially with the manubriium, only attachment to the axial skeleton, and serves as a brace for the scapula and stabilizes the shoulder.
Appendicular Skeleton -Pectoral Girdle (2) [Scapulae] Spine, acromion process, coracoid process, and glenoid cavity.
Appendicular Skeleton -Upper Limb [Humerus] Long bone of the arm, head articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula, greater and lesser tubercles serve as attachments for muscles, intertubercular groove holds a tendon from the biceps brachi.
Appendicular Skeleton -Upper Limb [Humerous 2] Deltoid tuberosity attaches the deltoid, capitulum articulates with the head of the radius, trochleas articulates with the ulna, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa.
Appendicular Skeleton -Radius Lateral side of the forearm, head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and fits into the radial notch of the ulna, radial tuberosity attaches a tendon from the biceps brachii, ulnar notch articulates with the head of the ulna.
-Radius (2) Styloid process attaches ligaments that run to the wrist.
Appendicular Skeleton -Ulna Longer bone of the forearm, coronoid process articulates with the coronoid fossa when elbow is flexed, olecranon process articulates with the olecranon fossa when elbow is extended.
-Ulna Trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus, head articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius,
Hand Wrist (carpus)8 small bones. Metacarpal bones form palm. Phlanges; Bones of fingers. Thumb 2 bones the rest have 3.
Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones. Lium, Ischium, Pubis.
Lower Limb -Femur Longest and strongest, head fits acetabulum of coxal bone, greater/lesser trochanters attach muscles,
Lower Limb -Tibia Medial bone lower leg, bears weight from femur.
Lower Limb Fibula Lateral to tibia, stabilizes ankle.
Lower Limb -Foot 7 tarsal bones, talus can move freely, calcaneus ad talus support body weight, 5 metatarsal bones, phalanges (toes)
Joints (movement) Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diarthrosis. S immovable, A slightly moveable, D freely moveable.
Joints (Structure) Fibrous, catilaginous, synovial
Sternoclavicular Joint Medial end of clavicle with sternum.
Acromioclavicular Lateral end of clavicle with scapula.
Glenohumeral Joint. Scapula with humerus.
Scapula(1) Triangular plate. Superior, medial(vertebral), and lateral(axillary) borders. 3 angles superior, inferior, lateral.
Scapula (2) Articulates with clavicle. Spine, acromion, coracoid process, glenoid cavity.
Upper Limb Brachium (humerus), Antebrachium (radius, ulna), carpus, manus.
Carpal Bones scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
Pelvic Girdle Left and right os coxae and the sacrum.
Os Coxae Llium, Ischium, Pubis, Acetabulum, Obturator foramen.
Patella Triangular sesamoid bone that forms within the tendon of the knee as a child begins to walk.
Created by: 100000053586325



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