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adaptive immune resp

immunogenetics and cytokines

any substance capable of inducing an immune response immunogen
any substance that can serve as the target of an immune response antigen
what are determinants of immunogenicity large size, chemical complexity, solublility and biodegradability, foreign
a substance, usually very small, that alone is not immunogenic, but after conjugation to a carrier protein or cell, becomes immunogenic. antibody formed can then bind to the hapten alone, the carrier, or both. hapten
an antigenic determinant-the portion of an antigenic molecule that is bound by an antibody or T cell epitope
what are the biological roles of antibody? neutralization, opsonization, complement activation
humora immune response involves this antibodies
cellular immune response involves this T cells and macrophages
what is the basic protein chain structure of an immunoglobulin? two identical light chains, two identical heavy chains. there is a variable and constant region of each protein.
an enzymatic action of papain on Ig yield these cleavage products Fab-Fragment antigen binding Fc-Fragment crystallizable
what are the five basic antibody classes? IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
what are the subgroups of IgG IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4
what are the subclasses of IgA IgA1, IgA2
what are the two major isotypes light chain? kappa and lambda
what are the two forms of IgM monomer, pentamer
what are the two forms of IgA monomer, dimer
how is antibody diversity created? developing B cell receptors form from gene segments, variable region encoded by V, D, and J segments, random combination of segments
additional diversity comes from? differences in joining points of segments, additional nucleotides added on, light and heavy chains combos, somatic hypermutations
what does isotype switching do? it brings the VDJ segments closer to another heavy chain constant region segment
what are some mechanisms of immunoregulation? CD4 , Treg cells, amount of antigen, neuroendocrine control, genetic controls, apoptosis, cytokines
proteins secreted by the cells of innate and adaptive immunity that mediate many of the functions of these cells. cytokines
in this cytokine mode of action, the cell acts on the producing cell itself autocrine
in this cytokine mode of action, the cell acts on neighboring cells paracrine
in this cytokine mode of action, the cell acts at distant sites endocrine
cytokines are controlled via... activation dependent exp, short half life of cytokine or its mRNA, specific receptor binding, inhibitory and competing factors
this cytokine is produced by leukocytes interleukins
this cytokine contributes to chemoattractant activity chemokines
this type of cytokine is anti-viral and involved with immunoregulation interferons
this type of cytokine stimulates individual pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells on their progeny colony stimulating factors
this cytokine is involved with inflammation TNF
this cytokine is an inhibitory growth factor TGF beta
these act as cell growth and differentiation factors, cell activators, chemokines, inflammatory mediators, colony stimulating factors...etc interleukines
these inhibit B and T cell proliferation, inhibits macrophage activation, and promotes antibody isotype switch to IgA TGF beta
most cytokines have this kind of receptor unique
binding of cytokine to a receptor may facilitate this cell activation
cytokines may activate a cell via this pathway JAKS/STAT
regulation of cytokines occurs via... receptor expression, stability of the cytokine or its mRNA, competition for receptor binding
when immunoglobulins are taken from the blood and exposed to an electrical field, which way do they tend to accumulate? the nevative end, because they are positively charged
the antigen binding site is formed by what part of the antibody? the variable region of the heavy and light chain
what does the Fab portion of the antibody do? it binds to the antigen
what does the Fc region of the antibody do? phagocytic cells bind to this portion
what part of the antibody contains the hypervariable region? the v domain of the Fab portion of the light chain
what antibody is good for sensitizing mast cells? IgE
what antibodies are the best opsonins IgG1 and IgG3
what antibodies are good at activating complement? IgM and IgG
which antibodies are good for protection of the embryo? IgG's
which antibodies are good for transport across the placenta? IgG1, IgG3, IgG4
which antibodies are best at neutralization? IgG's
which antibodies are best for sensitization for killing by NK cells? IgG1 and IgG3
which antibody is best for sensitization of mast cells? IgE
which antibody is best for transport across the epithelium? IgA
which antibodies are best for diffusion into extravascular sites? IgG1-4, IgA
what various types of intermolecular attractive forces exist between antibody and antigen? hydrogen bonding, electrostatic forces, vander waals, hydrophobic,
after B cell proliferation, what do they differentiate into? plasma cells and memory cells
how does variability in antibody molecule occur? the variable domain is not encoded by just one gene, it's encoded by many genes.
the variable region of a kappa and lambda light chain is encoded by what two gene segments? V, or J
these two genes are active in the development of lymphocyte, T, and B cells, and they are responsible for recombination to produce variation RAG1 and RAG2
the variable region of a heavy chain is determined by which gene segments? V, J, D
in a primary immune response, what type of antibody is mostly present? IgM
what method does the body use to make multiple types of antibodies? isotype switching
both somatic hypermutation and isotype switching are dependent on this AID-activation induced cytidine deaminase, which is expressed only in activated B cells. This initiates isotype switching hypermutation
by the time a secondary immune response occurs, most memory cells have undergone isotype switching to become this type of antibody IgG
these cells are very important for imunoregulation cytokines
what do low quantities of TNF do to the body? involved with local inflammation on the endothelial cell and activate leukocytes
what do moderate quantities of TNF do to the body? causes systemic effects such as fiver and acute phase protein productin in the livery. more leukocytes are released
what do high quantities of TNF do to the body? septic shock, hypoglycemia
IL4 is derived from...and they do... TH2T cells. they are responsible for promoting B cell growth and isotype switching to IgE (therefore, it may be important for generating allergic responses)
this type of interferon produces an antiviral effect type I
this type of interferon activates macrophages Type II
interferon gamma does what? isotype switching to opsonizing antibodies, macropage activation, increased MHC expression
this hemopoietic growth factor helps bone marrow produce more neutrophils and other granulocytes G-CSF
this growth factor inhibits T and B cell proliferation, inhibits macrophage activation, and promotes antibody isotype switch to IgA TGF beta
cytokine receptors activate cells via this... Jaks/STAT pathway
why are cytokines important for immune function regulate immune system, critical cell to cell communications, cytokine mediated pathology, therapy or therapeutic targets.
Created by: aferdo01