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Chapter 5 The Integumentary System

3 major skin regions epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
superficial skin region epidermis
middle skin region dermis
deepest skin region hypodermis, subcutaneous layer under skin, mostly adipose tissue
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium epidermis
contains melanocytes that produce skin pigment epidermis
5 layers of epidermis, bottom to top stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
deepest layer firmly attached to dermis stratum basale
single row of stem cells that undergo rapid division stratum basale
web-like system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes stratum spinosum
abundant melanin granules and dendritic cells stratum spinosum
thin, 3 to 5 cell layers where cells flatten stratum granulosum
keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate stratum granulosum
only on think skim, palmar, plantar stratum lucidum
thin, clear band above stratum granulosum stratum lucidum
3/4 thickness of epidermis stratum corneum
protects from abrasion and penetration, waterproofs, acts as barrier stratum corneum
strong flexible connective tissue (dense regular), cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, white blood cells dermis
2 layers of the dermis papillary layer, reticular layer
areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels papillary layer
dermal papillae contain capillary loops and free nerve endings papillary layer
80% thickness of the dermis reticular layer
collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency reticular layer
elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties reticular layer
2 types of sweat/sudoriferous glands eccrine and apocrine
glands that release sweat eccrine glands
ducts connect to pores eccrine glands
glands confined to axillary and anogenital areas apocrine glands
release sebum apocrine glands
sweat + fatty substances + protein sebum
glands functional from puberty on apocrine glands
secrete cerumen (wax) ceruminous glands
produce milk mammary glands
widely distributed glands, develop from hair follicles, secrete sebum sebaceous/oil glands
dead keratinized cells hair
hair pigments melanins
sensory nerve endings around each hair bulb, stimulated by bending hair hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus)
smooth muscle attached to follicle, responsible for goose bumps arrector pili
Created by: c8linpluemacher



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