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Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units

smallest structural and functional living unti cell
flexible outer boundary, composed of lipids and proteins plasma membrane
intracellular fluid containing organelles cytoplasm
control center of cell nucleus
important for membrane structure lipids
various signaling and transport functions proteins
function: transport, receptors or enzymes, attach to cytoskeleton or other cells membrane proteins
3 types of membrane junctions tight, desmosome, gap
impermeable membrane junction tight junction
anchoring membrane junction, binds cells desmosome
communicating membrane junction gap junction
membrane transport membrane is selectively permeable
no cellular energy(ATP) required, moves down concentration gradient passive transport
type of passive transport osmosis
the diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane osmosis, occurs until equilibrium is reached
measure of total concentration of solute particles osmolarity
where the solute concentration is equal to cytosol isotonic
where the solute concentration is greater than cytosol hypertonic, wrinkled
solute concentration is less than cytosol hypotonic, bloated
requires carrier proteins, moves against gradient, uses energy(ATP) to move molecules active transport
transport of large particles, macromolecules and fluids across plasma membrane, requires energy(ATP) vesicular transport
2 types of vesicular transport exocytosis and endocytosis
powerhouse of cell, provides most of cells ATP, has it's own DNA and RNA mitochondria
endomembrane system contains nuclear envelope, rER, golgi body, vesicles, lysosomes
contain protein and rRNA, site of protein synthesis ribosomes
interconnected tubes, continuous with nuclear membrane endoplasmic reticulum
storage and transport of proteins, has ribosomes rough ER
site of steroid and lipid synthesis, no ribosomes smooth ER
UPS of cell, modifies, concentrates and packages proteins and lipids golgi apparatus
cell stomach, contains digestive enzymes lysosomes
series of rods, important for vesicle transport and cell movement cytoskeleton
tough rope-like protein fibers, resist pulling on cell, attach to desmosomes intermediate filaments
dynamic hollow tubes, radiate from centrosome, determines shape of cell and placement of organelles microtubules
2 types of cellular extensions, whip-like extensions on surfaces of cells cilia and flagella
moves substances across cell surfaces cilia
propels whole cells (sperm) flagella
brain of cell, blueprints for cellular proteins, signals for protein synthesis nucleus
double-membrane barrier with pores nuclear envelope
cell cycle changes from formation of cell until it reproduces
interphase period from cell formation to cell division
subphases of interphse G1 for growth, S for DNA synthesis, G2 for growth and prepping for division
DNA replication DNA helices unwind from nuclesomes, leicase enzyme untwists double helix
nucleotide strand each is a template for building a new complementary strand for DNA replication
replisome site of DNA replication
DNA polymerase only works in one direction
semi-conservative DNA replication continuous leading strand is synthesized discontinuous lagging strand is synthesized in segments DNA ligase splices together short segments of discontinuous strand =2 DNA molecules formed from original
mitotic phase cell division
4 stages of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm by cleavage furrow
chromosomes become visible, each with 2 chromatids joined at centromere prophase
centrosomes separate and migrate toward poles prophase
mitotic spindles and asters form prophase
nuclear envelope fragments prophase
kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetichore of centromeres and draws them toward equator prophase
centromeres of chromosomes are aligned at the equator metaphase
metaphase plate plane midway between poles
shortest phase anaphase
centromeres of chromosomes split, chromatid becomes chromosome anaphase
chromosomes are pulled toward poles by motor proteins of kinetochores anaphase
polar microtubules continue forcing poles apart anaphase
begins when chromosomes stop moving telophase
2 sets of chromosomes uncoil and form chromatin telophase
new nuclear membrane forms around each mass telophase
nucleoli reappear telophase
spindle disappears telophase
begins during late anaphase, ring of actin microfilaments contracts to form cleavage furrow, 2 daughter cells are pinched apart, each with a nucleus identical to original cytokinesis
segment of DNA with blueprint for 1 polypeptide gene
protein synthesis triplets of nucleotide bases form genetic library; each triplet specifies coding for one amino acid
transfer DNA gene base sequence to a complementary base sequence of mRNA transcription
base sequence, promoter transcription
enzyme that oversees synthesis of mRNA RNA polymerase
3 steps of transcription initiation, elongation, termination
RNA polymerase binds to promoter, pries apart 2 DNA strands and initiates mRNA synthesis and start point on the template strand initiation of transcription
RNA polymerase moves along template strand, elongating mRNA transcript one at a time, unwinds DNA double helix and then rewinds behind it elongation
mRNA synthesis ends when termination signal is reached. RNA polymerase and completed mRNA transcript are released termination
converts base sequence of nucleic acids into amino acid sequence of proteins (genetic code) translation
involves mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA translation
carries instructions for building a polypeptide mRNA
structural component of ribosomes, helps translate message from mRNA rRNA
bind to amino acids and pair with bases of codons of mRNA and ribosome to begin protein synthesis tRNA
complementary 3 base sequence on mRNA codon
used to convert nucleic acids to a specific amino acid genetic code
translation mRNA attaches to small ribosomal subunit, moves along mRNA to start codon large ribosomal unit attaches, forms functional ribosomes anticodon of tRNA binds to its complementary codon and adds its amino acid to the forming protein chain
translation anticodon of tRNA binds to its complementary codon and adds its amino acid to the forming protein chain new amino acids are added by other tRNAs as the ribosome moves along rRNA until it reaches stop codon
role of rER in protein synthesis mRNA-ribosome complex is directed to rER by signal recognition particle forming protein enters ER sugar groups may be added to protein and alter shape protein is enclosed in a vesicle for transport to golgi body
prevents protein coding RNA from being translated antisense RNAs
small RNAs that interfere with mRNAs made by certain exons micro RNAs
Created by: c8linpluemacher



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