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directed study: sc. evidence and causality

In this type of epidemiologic study, the goal is to learn enough about a disease process to be able to formulate a hypothesis that other studies can then test hypothesis generating
this is a form of epidemiologic study test different hypotheses. hypothesis testing studies
the central to epidemiologic research is trying to identify these factors cause, risk factors, outcome
the research process begins with this observations of health and disease within individuals and populations. these observations lead to logical questions related to causes of these health/disease states.
plausible explanations for the observations hypothesis
this is a key element in the process of conducting any kind of research. they are like tools we use to create a meaningful, useful structure from the pile of raw materials, and provide an objective, mathematical basis for predicting clinical outcome statistical analysis
a consistent pattern of occurrence between two or more facotrs or events. we could say that these factors or events are in some way related to one another. this relationship can be positive or negative association
what are the three main aspects to the process of trying to determine a possible cause-effect relationship between a risk factor and disease outcome investigate the statistical relationship, investigate the temporal relationship, eliminate alternative explanations
if these factors are present, they strengthen the evidence that a relationship is causal strength of the association, consistency of the association, specificity o fthe association, biological plausibility, presence of a dose response relationship
in this association factor, the difference between the proportion of people with the woucome and the group of exposed individuals and proportion of people with outcome of unexposed is large strength of the association
in this association factor, if the outcome is present, the exposure typically was present as well consistency of the association
what are the five different types of cauusal relationships? sufficient cause, necessary cause, risk factor, direct causal relationship, indirect causal relationship
in this association, the relationship between exposure and outcome is statistically significant, but there is not evidence of a causal relationship non-causal association
there is no consistent or systematic pattern to the error. this produces findings that are both too high and too low compared to the true value in about equal frequency. random error
a differential source of error in which the deviations from truth tend to go in the same direction; the error is fairly consistently either too high or too low relative to the actual values that should have been measured. bias
the mixing together of two or more possibly causal exposures or variables. the effects of these variables are intertwined such that it is difficult to discern the extent to which one variable is responsible for the outcome of interest confounding
the interaction of two or more causal variables such that the effect of both is greater than the sum of their individual risks synergism
a variable influences the direction or strength of an association between two other variables effect modification
this type of bias occurs in the process of creating the human subject study groups. there is a systematic difference in how two or more study groups are created, the comparisons are fundamentally different apart from the experimental variable of interest assembly bias
in this bias, the subjects are allowed to select the study group in which they will participate. selection bias
another type of assembly bias and occurs when the investigators choose a nonrandom method of assigning subjects to study groups. this process also could create fundamental differences between study groups apart form the variable of interest allocation bias
this occurs when there is consistent error in how data are collected measurement bias
this occurs when there is a consistent error in how important information is collected from human subjects who must recall past exposures or events. this can affect one group in the study more than another. recall bias
this occurs when there is confusion over what independent variables (exposures) may be responsible for an outcome. this may create an apparent causal relationship between two non-causally related variables. confounding
this involves two or more exposure variables, each of which is causally associated with the outcome variable. this involves the combined effects of both exposures in the same person. synergism
this occurs when the nature of the causal relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is influenced by a third variable. effect modification
Created by: aferdo01