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epidemiologic measur


this cause of death refers to the original cause that resulted in a sequence of events that occurred leading up to death. proximal
the event that preceded right before death immediate
information obtained through observation. it should be careful, intentional and typically involves some form of measurement or evaluation of what is observed data
fundamental epidemiologic measure describes this the occurrence of an event of interest in a population
frequency measurement often includes this as an element time
prevalence is the same thing as.. proportion
rate is the same thing as proportion with this component added time
in a 2x2 table, what does A stand for number of people exposed who have the disease
in a 2x2 table, what does B stand for? number of people exposed who do not have the disease
in a 2x2 table, what does C stand for? number of people not exposed who do have the disease
in a 2x2 table, what does d stand for? number of people not exposed without the disease
in this type of rate, it applies to an entire population, without regard to any specific characteristic crude rate
in this type of rate, the population is divided into smaller homogeneous subgroups (ex: age specific mortality rate) specific rate
these are crude rates that have een adjusted to account for (control for) the effects of some other variable (ex: age) to allow for a more valid comparison adjusted (or standardized rates)
when comparing two or more populations, which is better, standardized rates, or crude rates? standardized
measure of the presence of disease that exists in the population at a given time prevalence
this measures the presence of disease in a population at a specific point in time point prevalence
measures the presence of disease throughout a specific period of time period prevalence
this is a measure of the occurrence of new cases of disease over a given time incidence
when all individuals in the population are at risk for the outcome over the entire period of study cumulative incidence
all individuals in the denominator of the rate fraction were not followed for the same length of time. the rate includes a time component referred to as "person years" incidence density (it maximizes your ability to use all ht edata that you have)
how can prevalence increase within a peopulation? when incidence increases
how can prevalence within a population decrease? as death or cures occur
what is the equation for prevalence incidencexduration
prevalence is influenced by these factors: development of new cases, immigration and emigration (especially of cases), average duration of disease state
a special type of incidence rate in which the time period is specified implicitly rather than explicitly-typically related to an outbreak in which a proportion of the population is exposed and develops the outcome. attack rate
a rate can be a good estimate of risk if the following three factors are true: the outcome in the numberator occurs only once per individual during the study period, the proportion of the population affected by the outcome is small, the study time period is relatively short
the "ultimate" measure of the absence of health mortality
annual mortality rate for all causes crude mortality rate
mortality rate during a specific time period specific mortality rate
the percentage of people with disease that die of the disease in given time case fatality rate
this is a proportion, not a rate, and answers the question: "of all the deaths in a population, what proportion are caused by disease x? proportionate mortality
Created by: aferdo01