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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

the study of structure anatomy
subdivision of anatomy, hands on gross/macroscopic anatomy
subdivision of anatomy, cell structure microscopic anatomy
subdivision of anatomy, embryology developmental anatomy
the study of function at many levels physiology
subdivisions are based on each particular organ system physiology
principle of complementarity anatomy and physiology and inseparable
function always reflects ______ structure
what a structure can do depends on its _____ form
6 levels of structural organization chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
chemical atoms and molecules
cellular cells and their organelles
tissue groups of similar cells
organ 2 or more types of tissues
organ system organs that work closely together
organism all organ systems
external body covering (hair, skin, nails) integumentary system
protects and supports organs, provides framework for muscles skeletal system
maintains posture, produces heat, motion and facial expressions muscular system
control system for the body, activates muscles and glands nervous system
glands secrete hormones to regulate cell processes endocrine system
transports blood carrying oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, etc; heart pumps blood cardiovascular system
houses white blood cells, attacks foreign substances lymphatic system
supplies blood with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide respiratory system
breaks down food digestive system
regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood, eliminates waste urinary system
reproduction male and female reproductive systems
anatomical position body erect, feet slightly apart, palms forward
toward the head superior, cranial
toward the lower body inferior, caudal
toward the front of the body ventral, anterior
toward the back of the body dorsal, posterior
toward or at the midline medial
away from midline lateral
between a medial and lateral structure intermediate
closer to the trunk of the body proximal
away from the trunk of the body distal
toward the body surface superficial, external
away from body surface deep, internal
axial body division head, neck, trunk
appendicular body division limbs
flat surface along which a body is cut for anatomical study plane
divides body into right and left sagittal plane
plane lies on midline midsagittal plane, median
place not on midline parasagittal plane
divides body into anterior and posterior parts frontal plane
divides body into superior and inferior parts transverse plane, horizontal
diagonal cut oblique section
cavity that protects the nervous system dorsal cavity
2 parts of the dorsal cavity cranial and vertebral/spinal cavities
cavity that encases brain cranial cavity
cavity that encases spinal cord vertebral/spinal cavity
cavity that houses internal organs ventral cavity
internal organs viscera
2 parts of the ventral cavity thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
2 pleural cavities each house a lung
mediastinum contains pericardial cavity, surrounds thoracic organs
pericardial cavity encloses heart
cavity that contains the stomach, intestines, spleen and liver abdominal cavity
cavity that contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs and rectum pelvic cavity
thin, double-layered membrane separated by serious fluid serosa membrane
parietal serosa lines internal body walls
visceral serosa covers internal organs
upper right and left regions hypochondriac regions
lower right and left regions iliac/inguinal regions
upper middle region epigastric
center-most region umbilical region
lower middle region hypogastric/pubic region
forehead frontal
eye socket orbital
nose nasal
mouth oral
chin mental
neck cervial
shoulder acromial
upper arm brachial
forearm antebrachial
armpit axillary
middle of chest sternal
breast mammary
belly button umbilical
inner elbow antecubital
thumb pollex
palm palmar
fingers, toes digital
hip coxal
upper leg femoral
knee patellar
shin crural
wrist carpal
ankle tarsal
top of foot metatarsal
big toe hallux
under umbilical pelvic
under pelvic inguinal
under inguinal pubic
ear otic
back of head occipital
back, shoulder blades scapular
elbow olecranal
spine vertebral
lower back lumbar
lower middle back sacral
butt gluteal
below butt perineal
back of hand metacarpal
back of knee popliteal
calf sural
lower leg fibular, peroneal
heel of foot calcaneal
bottom of foot plantar
hand manus
cheek buccal
Created by: c8linpluemacher