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A & P I Ch 2

Chemistry Comes Alive

Matter anything that has mass & occupies space
Mass numerical measure of it's enertia...measured in kilograms
Weight the force of gravity on the object
Energy capacity to do work or put matter into motion
Types of Energy Kinetic & Potential
Kinetic energy in action
Potential stored (inactive) energy
Glucose C6 H12 O6
C6 H12 O6 >>>>>> 38ATP + 6CO2 + 6H20...cellular respiration...40% efficient
Forms of Energy chemical...electrical...mechanical...radiant or electromagnetic
Chemical Energy stored in bonds of chemical substances
Electrical Energy results from movement of charged particles
Mechanical Energy directly involved in moving matter
Radiant or Electromagnetic Energy exhibits wavelike properties (i.e. visible light, ultraviolet light, & x-rays)
Conversion of Energy Forms is inefficient because some energy is "lost" as heat
Major Elements of the Human Body Oxygen...Carbon...Hydrogen...Nitrogen
Major Elements of the Human Body makes up _____ about 99% of body mass
O Oxygen
C Carbon
H Hydrogen
N Nitrogen
Lesser Elements of the Human Body makes up _____ about 3.9% of body mass
Lesser Elements of the Human Body Calcium...Phosphorus...Potassium...Sulfur...Chlorine...Magnesium...Iodine...Iron
Ca Calcium
P Phosphorus
K Potassium
S Sulfur
Na Sodium
Cl Chlorine
Mg Magnesium
I Iodine
Fe Iron
Trace Elements of the Human Body makes up _____ <0.01% of body mass
Trace Elements of the Human Body Chromium...Manganese...Zinc...Vitamins
Trace Elements of the Human Body are essential to _____ most of the enzymes in the body
Cofactors Chromium...Manganese...Zinc
Coenzymes Vitamins
Cr Chromium
Mn Manganese
Zn Zinc
Nucleus of an Atom Consists of _____ & _____ neutrons (-) & protons (+)
Neutrons no charge
Protons positive charge
Electrons orbit nucleus...equal in # to protons in atom...negative charge
Atomic # # of protons in nucleus
Isotopes structural variations of elements that differ in the # of neutrons they contain
Radioisotopes spontaneous decay (radio activity)...similar chemistry to stable isotopes...can be detected with scanners
3 Types of Mixtures Solutions...Colloids...Suspensions
Solutions homogeneous mixtures (the same)...usually transparent (solvent, solute)...solvent dissolves the solute
Colloids (Emulsions) heterogeneous translucent mixture (different)...large solute particles that do not settle out...undergo sol-gel transformations...cytoplasm
Suspensions heterogeneous mixtures (blood)...large visible solutes tend to settle out
Chemical Bonds electrons occupy up to seven electron shells (energy levels) around nucleus
It is the _____ of _____ in the _____ of an element that dictates the _____ #.....electrons.....outer shell.....chemical behavior
Octet Rule except for the 1st shell, (which is full with 2 electrons) atoms interact in a manner to have 8 electrons in their outermost (valence) shell for stability
Chemically Inert Elements do not chemically bond by ordinary means with anything else because they have 8 electrons in the valence shell
Chemically Reactive Elements outermost energy level not fully occupied by electrons...tend to gain, lose, or share electrons (form bonds) with other atoms to achieve stability
Covalent Bond the sharing of electrons between 2 or more elements
3 Types of Chemical Bonds ionic...covalent...hydrogen
Ionic Bonds giving/taking of electrons...transfer of valence shell electrons between atoms
Anions negative charge...have gained one or more electrons
Cations positive charge...have lost one or more electrons
Attraction of _____ charges results in an _____ opposite.....ionic bond
An Element that has Accepted an Electron is _____ Reduced
An Element that Gives an Electron Away is _____ the reducer
Reduction gaining of an electron
Oxidized giving an electron away
Oxidation loss of an electron
Ionic compounds form _____ instead of individual molecules crystals
Covalent Bonds formed by sharing of 2 or more valence shell electrons...allows each atom to fill its valence shell at least part of the time
In covalent bonds, sharing of electrons may be _____ or _____ equal or unequal
In covalent bonds, unequal sharing by atoms with different electron-attracting abilities produces _____ polar molecules
electronegative atom that has a greater pull on electrons
electropositive atom that does not have a big pull on electrons
Polar molecules enhance _____ the ability to be a solvent
Ionic bond...complete _____...seperates _____ transfer of electrons.....ions form
Polar covalent bond...unequal _____...slight ______ sharing of electrons...negative charge at one end & slight positive charge at the other end
Nonpolar covalent bond...equal _____...charge _____ sharing of electrons...balanced among atoms
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur...tends to have a _____ when dealing with _____ electronegativity...hydrogen
Hydrogen Bonds attractive force between electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule
Dipoles di = 2 poles = opposite ends...positive on one end & neg on other end
Intramolecular Bonds holding a large molecule in a three-dimensional shape
The bonds of a water represent _____ ______ type of bond...Also known as a _____ polar covalent...dipole
Oxygen has a greater affinity for the electrons & is therefore more _____...whereas, hydrogen has a lesser attraction for electrons is more _____ electronegative...electropositive
The Oxygen end of the molecule is therefore slightly more _____ & the hydrogen ends are slightly more_____ negative...positive
The attraction between the negative oxygen end of one water compound to the positive end of another water represents a _____ bond Hydrogen
(T/F) Hydrogen bonds are strong bonds? False, they are easily broken
(T/F) Hydrogen bonds may be inter- or intramolecular True
The unique properties of water are attributable yo hydrogen bonds. Some of the properties include... cohesion...high boiling point...why ice floats...high heat of vaporization...high heat capacity
Chemical Reactions occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken...represented as chemical equations
Chemical Equations contain molecular formula for each reactant & product...relative amounts of reactants & products, which balance
Electrons dictate the chemical behavior of the element
3 Patterns of Chemical Reactions synthesis (combination) reactions...decomposition reactions...exchange reactions
Synthesis building
Decomposition breaking something down
Hydrolisis adding H20 & breaking a bond
Synthesis reactions is what type of metabolism Anabolism
Decomposition reactions is what type of metabolism Catabolism
Endergonic putting energy into a reaction to build a new bond
Exergonic releasing energy through a chemical reaction
Amino Acids basic subunit of every protein
What is dehydration synthesis removal of a water molecule to form a new covalent bond
What is hydrolisis the addition of a water molecule to break a covalent bond
What is anabolism forming new bonds to build something bigger...requires energy (endergonic)
What is catabolism breaking bonds to make something smaller. Large molecules down to subunits...releases energy (exergonic)
Electron donors _____ & are ______ lose electrons...oxidized
Electron acceptors _____ & become _____ receive electrons...reduced
Reducing Agent the one giving the electron away...the one being oxidized
Oxidizing Agent the one accepting the electron...the one being reduced
All chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic
Exergonic Reactions release energy in the form of catabolic reactions
Endergonic Reactions contain more potential energy than it's reactions therefore we call it anabolic reactions
Rate of reaction is influenced by higher temperature, smaller particle size, higher concentration of reactant
Higher temperature increase rate of reaction
Smaller particle size increase rate of reaction
increase concentration of reactant increase rate of reaction
Catalysts anything that increases the rate of the reaction without being chemically changed itself
Catalysts _____ rate of the reaction but _____ increases...does not become part of the reaction
Biological Catalysts enzymes
Classes of compounds Inorganic compounds & organic compounds
Inorganic Compounds water, salts, many acids & bases...do not contain carbon
Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids...unique to living systems...contain carbon & hydrogen...usually large...covalent bonded by dehydration synthesis
Co & Co2 is _____ inorganic
Water most popular & common inorganic compound...essential for life...60-80% of the volume of living cells...most important inorganic compound in living organisms because of its properties
Intracellular Water H20 in the cell...most of h20 in the body
Extracellular H20 plasma in blood...water in tissues & matrix
Water's Properties universal solvent...medium for chemical reactions to occur...is a part of chemical reactions
Salts anything that you put into water that dissociates into it's ions...also called electrolytes
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids polar molecules...will dissolve in water
Fats also called lipids...insoluble in water...nonpolar
Positively charged are Cations
Negatively charged are Anions
Electrolytes anything thats a salt in a solution that will conduct electricity
Properties of water high heat capacity...high heat of vaporization...polar solvent properties...reactivity...cushioning
High heat capacity property of water absorbs & releases heat with little temperature change...prevents sudden changes in temperature
High heat of vaporization property of water evaporation requires large amounts of heat energy...useful cooling mechanism
Polar solvent property of water dissolves & dissociates ionic substances or electrolytes...forms hydration layers around large charged molecules (proteins, electrolytes)...body's major transport medium
Most common electrolytes that we deal with Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 = bicarbonate
Reactivity property of water a necessary part of hydrolysis & dehydration synthesis reations
Hydrolysis is _____ catabolic...covalent bonds being broken
Dehydration Synthesis is _____ Anabolic...covalent bonds being made
Cushioning property of water protects certain organs from physical trauma
Salts Ionic compounds that dissociate in water...contains cations other than H+ & anions other than OH-...ions (electrolytes) conduct electrical currents in solution...ions play specialized roles in body functions
H+ proton...+ represents an acid...drives the pH down
OH- Hydroxyl ion...-represents alkaline (basic)...drives the pH up
Acids & Bases both are elctrolytes
Acids are proton (hydrogen ion) donors (release H+ in solution)...contain [H+]...as [H+] increases, acidity increases & pH decreases
Bases are proton acceptors (take up H+ from solution)...alkaline solutions contain bases (e.g. OH-)...as [H+] decreases (or as [OH-] increases) alkalinity increases & pH increases...also called buffers
Bicarbonate ion & ammonia important bases in the body because of buffering properties
Bicarbonate Ion HCO3-
pH the negative logarithm of [H+] in moles per liter
[ ] refers to the concentration of the thing
10 -7 m = _____ 7 pH
Neutral Solutions pure water...are pH 7...contains equal numbers of H+ & OH-
Acidic Solutions increase [H+] = decrease pH...pH of 0 - 6.99
Alkaline Solutions decrease [H+] == increase pH...pH of 7.01 - 14
Bloods normal pH is 7.35 - 7.45
pH change interferes with _____ cell function & may damage living tissues
Slight change in pH can be _____ fatal
pH is regulated by _____ kidneys (most effective but slowest responding)...lungs (2nd line of defense, expel or hold CO2)...buffers (frontline defense, binds protons - changes strong acids into weak acids)
Buffers mixture of compounds that resist pH changes...convert strong (strongly dissociated) acids or bases into weak (slightly dissociated) ones
Carbonic Acid formed by bicarbonate & protons reacting together...weak acid
If blood becomes too basic (rise in pH): H2Co3>>>>>HCO3 + H+...creates more protons
If blood becomes too acid (drop in pH): HCO3 + H+>>>>>H2CO3...creates carbonic acid
Many organic compounds are polymers
polymers chains of similar units (monomers or building blocks)
Polymers are formed by ______ dehydration synthesis
What reactions break down polymers into monomers? Hydrolysis
What molecule is essential to Hydrolysis? H2O
Dehydration Synthesis taking H20 out...anabolism...forms covalent bonds...endergonic reaction
Hydrolysis water splitting...catabolism...exergonic reaction
ATP primary form of energy in the body...endergonic reaction
Carbohydrates carbo = carbon hydrates = water...sugars & starches...contain C, H, & O
(CH20)6 = C6 H12 O6
3 classes of carbohydrates monosaccharides...disaccharides...polysaccharides
Functions of carbohydrates major source of cellular fuel (glucose)...structural molecules (ribose sugar in RNA)
glucose + O2 = ATP...aerobic respiration
Monosaccharides simple sugars containing 3 to 7 C atoms
Subscript 6 = Hexose
subscript 5 = Pentose
Disaccharides double sugars...too large to pass through cell membranes
Sucrose table sugar...glucose + fructose...built by dehydration synthesis
Polysaccharides polymers of simple sugars (starch & glycogen)...not very soluble...without enzymes we could not use them because we couldn't break them down
Isomers same chemical formula, different molecule structure
Glycogen animals main storage form of glucose...found in high concentrations in the liver & muscles
Starch plants main storage form of glucose
Cellulose a key structural molecule in plants...not digestible by humans
Lipids nonpolar/insoluble...contains C, H, O (less than carbs) & sometimes P
Main types of Lipids Neutral fats or triglycerides...phospholipids...steroids
Triglycerides Neutral fats (solid fats & liquid oils)...composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
Saturated Fats solid fats at room temperature
Unsaturated Fats liquid oils at room temperature
Main functions of Triglycerides energy storage...insulation...protection
Glycerol is the 3 carbon backbone of triglycerides
What bond forms triglycerides covalent ester bonds
Saturated fatty acids unhealthy...single bonds between C atoms; max # of H...solid animal fats (e.g. butter)
Unsaturated fatty acids one or more double bonds between C atoms...reduced # of H atoms...plant oils (e.g. olive oils)
Phospholipids Bi molecule/ACDC molecule...modified triglycerides...head & tail regions have different properties (amphipathic)...important in cell membrane structure...problematic lipids
Head of phospholipids phosphorus group...polar charged...water soluble = hydrophilic
Tails of phospholipids 2 fatty acids...nonpolar...water insoluble = hydrophobic
Amphipathic opposite properties...what phospholipids are
Steroids interlocking 4-ring structure...cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormones, bile salts...vitamins K, E, D, & A (liquid soluble, water insoluble)
Cholesterol basis of all steroids
Active vitamin D stimulates small intestines to absorb calcium
Bile salts emulsifies the fats in your diet...fats that encase lipids that you ingest in your diet to allow intestine to digest them
Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins K, E, D, A...can be stored in your system
Lipoproteins transport fats in the blood
Proteins most abundunt & most multifunctional of all organic compounds in the body...are enzymes...water insoluble...structural...polymers of amino acids (20 types)
Polymers of amino acids are joined _____ by peptide bonds
Proteins contain: C, H, O, N, & sometimes S & P
Peptide Bonds covalent bonds between amino acids to make proteins...built by dehydration synthesis
Proteins are built on peptide bonds
Peptides bonds are _____ & _____ anabolism & endergonic
R group is called a _____ functional group
DNA blueprint (genetic code)...goes through transcription & turns into MRNA (messenger RNA)
Translation conversion of MRNA on the ribosome into an amino acid chain (polypeptide chain)
Polypeptide Chain Primary Structure the sequence of amino acids forms the polypeptide chain
H bonds are _____ responsible for secondary structure
Polypeptide chain secondary structure primary chain forms spirals (alpha-helices) & sheets (beta-sheets)
Alpha-helix the primary chain is coiled to form a spiral structure, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds
Beta-sheet primary chain "zig-zags" back & forth forming a "pleated" sheet. Adjacent strands are helped together by hydrogen bonds
At secondary structure, not a _____ but still a _____ functional protein...polypeptide
Tertiary Structure superimposed on secondary structure. Alpha-helices & beta-sheets are folded up to form a compact globular molecule held together by intramolecular bonds
At the tertiary structure, is a _____ functional protein
Denaturation process of causing proteins to unfold & lose their specific three-dimensional shape into its primary structure
Quaternary Structure 2 or more polypeptide chains, each with its own tertiary structure combine to form a functional protein
Fibrous Proteins structural proteins...strandlike...water insoluble...very stable
Examples of fibrous proteins keratin, elastin, collagen, certain contractile fibers
Collagen the most common protein in nature & the body
Elastin primary foundation of arota & arteries
Keratin hard, resilant protein...finger nails, hair, surface of skin...protective protein (water, abrasion, & tear resistant)
Globular Proteins very diverse...compact...spherical...water-soluble...sensitive to enviromental changes
Examples of globular proteins antibodies...hormones...molecular chaperones...enzymes
Enzymes biological catalyst which speeds up chemical reactions
Enviromental changes that proteins are sensitive to high heat...high & low pH...alcohols...chemical...high & low NaCl
Protein Denaturation shape change & disruption of active sites due to enviromental changes...reversible in most cases, if normal conditions are restored...inreversible if extreme changes damage the structure beyond repair
Enzymes do what? lower the activation energy, increase the soeed of a reaction
Characteristics of Enzymes often named for the reaction they catalyze; usually end in -ase...some functional enzymes (holoenzymes) consist of: Apoenzyme (protein) ///cofactor (metal ion) or coenzyme (a vitamin)
Hydrolases removes water
Oxidases removes electrons from a molecule
What is an enzyme protein...biologic catalyst
What is a catalyst substance that speeds up a reaction
What is Ea Energy of activation
Enzymes do what to a reaction Lower energy of activation...speeds up reaction
On what does an enzyme act Its substrate
Enzymes are _____for their substrate specific
Nucleic Acids DNA & RNA...Contain C, O, H, N, & P...Building block
DNA & RNA are the _____ largest molecules in the body
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid...4 bases...double-stranded helical molecule...provides instructions for protein synthesis...replicates before cell division...has a 5 carbon sugar backbone...lacks oxygen...has thymine
4 bases of DNA Adenine (A)...Guanine (G)...Cytosine (C)...Thymine (T)
What is the 5 carbon sugar backbone of DNA Ribose
DNA is _____to create offspring replicated
Why does DNA replicate before cell division to ensure genetic continuity
RNA Ribonucleic Acid...has oxygen...has uracil...4 bases...single-stranded molecule...3 varieties carry out DNA orders for protein synthesis
3 varieties of RNA Messenger RNA...Transfer RNA...Ribosomal RNA
4 bases of RNA Adenine (A)...Guanine (G)...Cytosine (C)...Uracil (U)
Differences of DNA & RNA DNA does not have an oxygen while RNA does...DNA is a double-stranded molecule & RNA is a single-stranded molecule...DNA has thymine & RNA has uracil
Building block of DNA & RNA nucleotide >>>>>subunit
Nucleotide is composed of N containing base...pentose sugar...phosphate group
Pentose Sugar & Phosphate Group backbone of DNA & RNA...don't participate in the actual reaction of DNA & RNA
N containing group active portion of DNA & RNA...pair with their partner only
Adenine (A) & Thymine (T) always pair with each other
Cytosine (C) & Guanine(G) Always pair with each other
What bases of DNA & RNA always pair with each other A & T...C & G
A & T/C & G pair by a ______ Hydrogen bond
In RNA, A pairs with _____ U
DNA >>>>> DNA replication
DNA >>>>> mRNA transcription
mRNA carries message from the nucleus to the ribosome
mRNA >>>>> Protein translation
tRNA transfers amino acid to the ribosome
rRNA RNA that is embeded in the ribosome
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate...adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with 2 additional phosphate groups
Function of ATP Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation terminal phosphates are enzymatically transferred to & energize other moelcules...such "primed" molecules perform cellular work (life processes) using the phosphate bond energy
ATP is _____ into ______ hydrolized...ADP & a phosphate group
Created by: retazba