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Genital Development

Development of genitals

QuestionAnswer
Describe the types of hypospadia Glanular: Urethra opens at the inferior surface of glans. Penoscrotal: Down at the base of free penis. Penile: midway opening
What causes a double uterus/vagina? Lack of fusion of paramesonephric ducts and lack of uterine septum to disappear
What is the mesonepheric ridge derived from? Intermediate mesoderm
What develops in the mesonephric ridge region? Mesonephric duct
What develops in the gonadal ridge? Gonads. There is a thickening of the epithelium in the genital ridge
What happns in the urogenital ridge? Migrating neural crest cells. thickening medial to the genital ridge where the adrenal gland will be.
What does the adrenal gland produce? Medulla? Adreneline. The cells that produce and secrete adrenaline act as if they are postsynaptic. They secrete in response to presynaptice fibers from thorax
What does the cortex produce? There are corticoids and testosterone
Describe the germ cells Eventually going to be egg or sperm, if they get lost they can become tetratomas
How do the germ cells migrate? Along the allontois, around the cloaca, through hindgut, dorsal mesentery, then to gonadal ridge
Describe the primitive sex chords of male and female Cords of the cortex persist in females, Medulla persist in males
What does the medullary cords develop into in males? Rete testis
Where are the follicular cells in the female? They make a follicle around the primary oocytes
What degenerates to become the proper ligament of the ovary and the round ligament? Mesonephric duct
What is another name for mullerian duct? Paramesonephric duct
what do the paramonephric ducts do in female? They join together but not quite closed to form the cervix
What is at the end of the uterovaginal plate? Hymen
What is another name for the mesonephric duct? Wolfian duct
What does the wolfian duct become in the female? Ovarian ligament proper and the round ligament of the uterus
What factor is th Y chromosome referred to as? Testis determining factor
If the gonad contains the Y chromosome then what are the cells it develops? Sertoli cells
What hormone does the sertoli cells produce? Antimullerian hormone: prevents further development of the mullerian ducts
What population of cells does AMH cause? Leydig cells
What do leydig cells produce? Testosterone
What is the 1st population of leydig cells responsible for? Maintaing the wolfian duct
Waht is the 2nd population of leydig cells responsible for? Spermatogenesis
When do the testis cords become hallow? At puberty
What do the paragenital tubules develop into? Epididymis
What do the mesonephric tubules develop into? The efferent ducts
What do the genital swellings develop into? The labia majora or scrotum
What do cells have in the perineal area that are responsible for testosterone conversion? 5 alpha reductase that converts testosterone to DHT
What does the DHT lead to? there are DHT receptors that when bound will result in the development of secondary characteristics
When the phallus elongates what happens? There is going to be a urethral fold
What happens to the urethral groove and where is it? It is at the base of the penis and it gets zipped up by urethral raphe. There is also scrotal raphe that zips up the scrotum
What is the urethral fold similar to in the female? The labia minora
What does the urethral plate at the base of the penis do? It pushes itself it
What is the secondary groove? It is an indentation of the primary groove. The urethral folds come and zip the whole thing up
What does the bulbourethral gland do? Produce secretions
Where do seminal vesicles secrete? Into the urethra
What does the glanular urethra from from? a second population and so we end up with a wider section of the urethra referred to as the navicular fossa