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Back, Neck, Shoulder, and Elbow

MuscleActionOriginInsertionInervationOther Information
Spinalis Group (Thoracic) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae Spinous processes of upper thoracic Dorsal primary divisons of spinal nerves
Spinalis Group (Cervical) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Ligamentum nuchae (C7) Spinous process of axis Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Longissimus Group (Thoracic) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Lumbosacral fascia Transverse processes of all thoracic vertebrae and posterior ribs Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Longissimus Group (Cervical) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Transverse processes of upper thoracic Transverse processes of C3-C7 Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Longissimus Group (Capital) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Transverse processes of upper thoracic facets of lower cervical Posterior mastoid process Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Iliocostalis Group (Lumbar) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Lumbodorsal fascia Angle of last 7 ribs Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Iliocostalis Group (Cervical) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Angle of upper ribs Transverse processes of lower cervical vertebrae Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Iliocostalis Group (Thoracic) Extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side Angle of lower 6 ribs Angle of upper 6 ribs Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Multifidus Group Extends vertebral column, rotates vertebral column to opposite side Either side of spinous process, up to 2-4th vertebrae Spinous process Dorsal primary divisons of spinal nerve This group runs from the sacrum to C2
Rotators Group Extend vertebral column, rotates vertebral column to opposite side Transverse process of one vertebra Base of spinous process of vertebra above origin Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerve This group runs from the sacrum to C2
Semispinalis Group (General) Extends vertebral column and head Transverse processes of lower half of thoracic Spinous processes of upper thoracic and lower couple of cervical Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves (blank)
Semispinalis Group (Cervical) Extends vertebral column and head Transverse processes of upper thoracic Spinous processes of C2-C5 Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves (blank)
Semispinalis Group (Capital) Extends vertebral column and head Transverse processes of upper thoracic and facets of lower cervical Nuchal line of occiput Dorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves (blank)
Splenius Capitis Rotate head to same side, laterally flexes head and neck, extends head and neck Lower ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebra Mastoid process Branches of dorsal divisions of cervical nerves Holds deep posterior neck musculature
Splenius Cervicis Rotates head to same side, laterally flexes head and neck, extends head and neck Lower ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebra Transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae Branches of dorsal divisions of cervical nerves Holds deep posterior neck musculature
Rectus Capitus Rock and tilt head back into extension, rotate head to same side Inferior skull and posterior C1 and C2 Transverse processes of C1 and inferior nuchal line Suboccipital (blank)
Quadratus Lumborum Elevates hip, laterally flexes vertebral column, assists to extend vertebral column, fixes last rib during respiration Iliolumbar ligaments and iliac crest Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and 12th rib Branches of 1st lumbar and 12th thoracic Thick fascia investing muscle is continous with anterior thoracolumbar fascia
Rectus Abdominis Flexes vertebral column Pubic symphysis and crest Anterior inferior border of ribcage (xiphoid process and cartilage of ribs 5-7) Branches of intercostals Rectus abdominis is narros inferiorly and 3x wider superiorly, R and L recti joined by linea alba and entire msucle is enveloped by rectus sheath
External Obliques Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal contents, laterally flexes vertebral column to same side, rotates vertebral column to opposite side External surfaces of lower ribs Linea alba, pubis and anterior iliac crest Branches of intercostals Muscles form part of anterolateral abdominal wall, aponeurosis contributes to anterior abdominal wall and forms inguinal ligament inferiorly
Internal Obliques Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal contents, latearlly flexes vertebral column to same side, rotates vertebral column to same side Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior iliac crest and lateral inguinal ligament Lower ribs, linea alba, and pubis Branches of intercostals (blank)
Transverse Abdominis Compresses abdominal contents Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior iliac crest, and lateral inguinal ligament Lower ribs, linea alba, pubis Branches of intercostals Runs deep to internal obliques but fibers remain parallel rather than fanning
Sternocleidomastoid Laterally flexes head to same side, rotates head to opposite side, flexes neck, assits in inhalation Mastoid process Manubrium (sternal head) and medial clavicle (clavicular head) Spinal accessory (blank)
Scalenes Elevates ribs during inhalation, flexes neck (anterior portion), with ribs fixed they laterally flex neck to same side, rotate head and neck to opposite side Transverse proceses of C4-C6 First and second ribs Cervical plexus Brachial plexus passes between middle and anterior scalenes
Platysma Assists in depressing mandible, tightens fascia of neck Inferior mandible and subcutaneous tissues of lower face Clavipectoral fascia Fascial (blank)
Longus Capitis Flexes and laterally flexes head Anterior transverse processes of lower cervical vertebrae Inferior occipital bone Spinal nerve (blank)
Longus Colli Flexes and laterally flexes head Anterior bodies and transverse processes of lower cervical vertebrae Transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae Spinal Nerve (blank)
Deltoid Abducts shoulder (all fibers), flexes shoulder, medial rotation of shoulder, horizontally adducts shoulder (anterior fibers), extend shoulder, laterally rotates shoulder, horizontally abducts shoulder (posterior fibers) Latearl 1/3rd of clavical, acromion, and spine of scapula Deltoid tuberosity Axillary from brachial plexus (blank)
Trapezius Extend, laterally flex to same side, and rotate to same side the head and neck, elevate and upwardly rotate scapula (upper), adduct and stabilize scapula (mid), depress and upwardly rotate scapula (lower) External occipital protuberance, medial portion of superior nuchal line of occiput, ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7-T12 Latearl 1/3rd of clavical, acromion, and spine of scapula Spinal accessory and cervical plexus (blank)
Latissimus Dorsi Extends, adducts, and medially rotates shoulder Spinous processes of last 6 thoracic vertebrae, last 3-4 ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, and posterior iliac crest Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus Brachial plexus (blank)
Teres Major Extend, adduct, and medially rotate shoulder Lateral side of inferior angle and lower half of lateral border of scapula Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus Lower subscapular (blank)
Supraspinatus Abducts shoulder, stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Supraspinous fossa of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Suprascapular (blank)
Infraspinatus Laterally rotates, adducts, extends shoulder, horizontally abducts shoulder, stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Infraspinous fossa of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Suprascapular from brachial plexus (blank)
Teres Minor Lateally rotate, adducts, extends shoulder, horizontally abducts shoulder, stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Superior 1/2 of lateral border of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Axillary (blank)
Subscapularis Medially rotate shoulder, stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity Subscapular fossa of scapula Lesser tubercle of humerus Subscapular (blank)
Rhomboid Major Adducts, elevates, and downwardly rotates scapula Spinous processes of T2 and T5 Medial border of scapula between spine of scapula and inferior angle Dorsal scapular from brachial plexus (blank)
Rhomboid Minor Adducts, elevates, and downardly rotate scapula Spinous processes of C7 and T1 Medial border of scapula between spine of scapula and inferior angle Dorsal scapula from brachial plexus (blank)
Levator Scapula Elevates, downwardly rotates scapula, laterally flexes and rotates head and neck to same side, extends head and neck Transverse processes of 1st-4th cervical vertebrae Medial border and superior angle of scapula Dorsal scapula nerve and cervical nerves (blank)
Serratus Anterior Abducts and depresses scapula, holds medial border of scapula against rib cage, and may act in forced inhalation Surfaces of upper eight or nine ribs Anterior surface of medial border of scapula Long thoracic from brachial plexus (blank)
Pectoralis Major Adducts, medially rotates shouler, may assist in elevating thorax in forced inhalation, flexes and horizontally adducts shoulder (upper), extends shoulder (lower) Medial half of clavical, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6 Crest of greater tubercle of humerus Anterior thoracic from brachial plexus (blank)
Pectoralis Minor Depresses, abducts, and tilts scapula anteriorly and assists in forced inhalation 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs Coracoid process of scapula Anterior thoracic from brachial plexus (blank)
Subclavius Draws clavicle inferiorly and anteriorly, elevates 1st rib, and stabilizes sternoclavicular joint 1st rib and cartilage Inferior and lateral aspect of clavicle 5th and 6th cervicals (blank)
Biceps Brachii Flexes elbow, supinates forearm, and flexes shoulder Coracoid process of scapula (short), supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (long) Tuberosity of radius and aponeurosis of biceps brachii Musculocutaneous (blank)
Triceps Brachii Extends elbow (all heads), extends shoulder and adducts shoulder (long head) Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula (long), posterior surface of proximal 1/2 of humerus (lateral), posterior surface of distal 1/2 of humerus (medial) Olecranon process of ulna Radial (blank)
Coracobrachialis Flexes and adducts shoulder Coracoid process of scapula Medial surface of mid-humeral shaft Musculocutaneous (blank)
Brachialis Flexes elbow Distal 1/2 of anterior surface of humerus Tuberosity and coranoid process of ulna Musculocutaneous (blank)
Brachioradialis Flexes elbow, assists in pronation and supination of forearm (when movements are resisted) Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Styloid process of radius Musculocutaneous and radial (blank)
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis Extend and abduct wrist, assists in flexion of elbow Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Base of 2nd metacarpal (longus) Base of 3rd metacarpal (brevis) Radial (blank)
Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexes and abducts wrist, flexes elbow Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpal Median (blank)
Palmaris Longus Tenses palmar fascia, flexes wrist, and flexes elbow Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis Median (blank)
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexes and adducts wrist, may flex elbow Common flexor tendon form medial epicondyle Pisiform Ulnar (blank)
Pronator Teres Pronates forearm, assists in flexion of elbow Medial epicondyle of humerus, common flexor tendon, and coronoid process of ulna Middle of lateral surface of radius Median (blank)
Supinator Supinates forearm Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral ligament, and annular ligament Lateral surface of proximal shaft of radius Radial (blank)
Created by: mphfoil