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MT Skeletal

MT Skeletal & Muscul

QuestionAnswer
Axial skeleton is composed of skull, vertebrae, ribcage,
How many cervical vertebrae are there? 7
How many thoracic vertebrae? 12
How many lumbar vertebrae? 5
How many sacral vertebrae? 1 but its composed of 5 bones fused together
Calcaneus Heel bone
Diaphysis long shaft of the bone
epiphysis rounded, irregular end of the long bone
periosteum tissue covering of the bone; fiberous connective tissue
epiphyseal allows the bone to grow length wise, goes away when a person reaches their height
Tendon attaches muscle to bone
Acetabulum accepts the head of the femur
Osteoblast bone building cell (builds up)
Osteoclast breaks bone apart (breaks down)
Osteocyte bone cell
Simple fracture = no break in skin, little or no dmg to soft tissue. (all fractures are simple except compound fractures)
Comminuted fracture splintered bone
Greenstick fracture bone is bent, but only broken on one side; most often sen in children
Compound (Open) fractureW Bone protruding from skin
Spiral fracture fracture forms a spiral which encircles the bone, twisted
Osteoporosis = a decline in bone mass to a degree that compromises normal function
Bone markings = groves where muscle & tendon blood vessels & nerves enter and exit
Treatment of a sprain is (PRICE) Protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation
Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Lordosis sway back
Kyphosis huntch back
O-R-I-F means open reduction internal fixation
Fracture = crack or break in bone
Transverse fracture = fracture line is at right angle with the long axis of the bone
Define ligament attaches bone to bone
Acetabulum accepts the head of the femur
Define ilium upper rounded area on the hip bone
cartilage more flexable than bone
Osteoblast bone building cell
What are the functions of the bones? Support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
Define the appendicular skeleton bones of the arms, legs, pelvic gridle
The skeletal systems include: joints, cartilages, ligaments, and bone
Define orthopedics branch of medicine concerned w/ skeletal system
Define compact bone A solid bone
Define spongy bone looks like sponge
Give some examples of long bones arms, legs, fingers, toes, femur
Give some examples of short bones wrists and ankles
Give some examples of flat bones ribs, sternum, skull, shoulder blades
Give some examples of Irregular bones facial vertebrae
Factors that affect bone growth and maintenance are: Heredity, Nutrition (Vitamins A,C, D,calcium), Hormones (growth hormones), Exercise or 'stress'
Rickets bones become softened due to lack of vitamin D. Affects children due to lack of milk and not playing outside.
Exercise for bones is barring weight, which bones are specialized to do
Stress for bones is w/o normal stress bones will loose calcium faster than it's replaced.
Orhopedics branch of medicine concerned with the skeletal system
Where is the humerus upper arm
Where is the olecranon elbow
Where is the radius arm bone on the thumb side
Where is the Ulna arm bone on little finger side
Where are the carpel bones wrist
Where are the Metacarpals bones within the palm area of the hand
Where are the Phalanges fingers and toes
Flexion decrease angle of the joint
Extension increased angle of the joint
Abduction movement away from the midline
Adduction movement toward the midline
Pronation rotation of the forearm so palm is faced down
Supination rotation of the forearm so palm is face up
Dorsiflexion standing on your heels
Plantar flexion standing on your toes
Muscle that forms the calf of the leg gastrocnemius
site imjection for children under 3 years vastus lateralis
How many phalanges are there in each hand 14
How many phalanges are in each finger 3
How many phalanges are in the thumb 2
define myopathy any disorder of the muscle
Where is the femur located thigh bone; longest, strongest, heaviest bone in the body
Where is the tibia larger bone in the lower leg
Where is the fibula smallest bone in the lower leg
Where is the tarsus ankle
Where is the talus ankle
Where are the metatarsals sole of the foot
How many phalanges are in each foot 14
How many phalanges are in each toe 3
How many phalanges are in the big toe 2
Another name for a joint is articulation
Define joint where the bones join together
Where is the glenoid fossa, and what is its function shoulder area; accepts the head of the humerus
Define Synarthrosis joint suture (inmoveable joint) ex. skull
Define Amphiarthrosis joint another name is Symphysis slightly moveable ex. vertebra
Define Diarthrosis (synovial joint) freely moveable ex knee
A synovial joint contains what? synovial fluid
Synovial fluid in in a sac known as a bursa
Describe a hinge joint elbow
Describe a pivot joint radius or ulna
Describe a ball-and-socket joint femur, hipbone, hemerus, shoulder
Define arthritis inflammation of a joint
Another name for osteoarthritis is degenerative joint disease (DJD)
The most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis (OA)
The most crippling type of arthritis is Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Define gout build up of lactic acid and crystals in a joint most likely found in the big toe
How many bones are in the adult body 206
Blood cell formation = hematopoiesis
The parathyroid glands read calcium levels in the blood. If there's an increase in calcium, what makes bone cells? osteoblast
If there's a decrease in calcium, what "eats" and puts calcium back into the blood? oeteoclast
Oblique fracture = the fracture is at an angle across the bone
Impacted fracture = bone fragment is driven into another bone fragment and remain in that position
Depressed fracture = skull bone is driven inward
Spiral fracture = fracture forms a spiral which encircles the bone
Pathological fracture = due to a disease process, not trauma
Define Axial skeleton forms a longitudinal axis of the back of the head
Frontal bone = forms forehead
Parietal bones = paired on either side of the cranium
Temporal bones = on each side of the skull above the ears
Occipital bone = base of the skull
Maxilla bone = upper jaw
Mandible bone = lower jaw (only bone in the face that moves)
Zygomatic bones = cheek bones
Lacrimal bones = bone that opens for tears (holes or grooves for tears)
Vomer bone = tip of the nose
The hyoid is the only bone that does not directly articulate with any other bone. (it looks like a horse shoe)
What is the paranasal sinus function? lighten the skull and provides resonance for the voice
Define ossicles malleus, incus, stapes
Where are the ossicles located? middle of the ear
Define fontanels (fontanelles) soft spot on infants head
The first cervical vertebra is also known as what? What is it's purpose? C1 atlas; allows the head to shake yes
The atlas allows what you to shake your head yes
The 2nd cervical vertebra is also know as what? C2 axis - allows you to shake your head no
The pivot point (joint) is the ondontoid process
What is the purpose of the intervertbral discs? allows flexibility and cushions
The medical name for the breast bone is the? sternum
There are how many pair of ribs 12
How many true ribs are there? 7
How many floating ribs are there 2
How many false ribs are there 3
The medical name for the collar bone is the clavicle
The medical name for the shoulder blade is the scapula
Define suture (as it relates to a bone) immovable
What are the 3 parts of the sternum (in order) manbrium, body, xiphoid process
What is the purpose of the intervertebral discs allows flexibility and cushions
Where is the femur located thigh
Another name for the first cervical vertebra is is the atlas
What is the purpose of the atlas (first cervical vertebra) nod your head yes
There are __________ cervical vertebrae 7
There are ______________ thoracic vertebrae 12
There are ______________ lumbar vertebrae 5
______________is the only bone that does not directly articulate with any other bone hyoid
In the adult, how many bones make up the sacrum 1
If there is an increase in calcium in the body, _____________ make bone cells osteoblast
The site of muscle attachment on the femur is the trochanter
List 2 bones in the lower arm radius, ulna
The pivot joint for the atlas and the axis is known as the ondontoid process
Where are the metacarpals located palms of the hand
Another name for a synarthrotic joint is suture
What 2 nuturients become part of the bone matrix calcium and phosphorus
Which bones of the cranium are "paired" temporal bones and parietal bones
where are the metatarsals located sole of the foot
What is the purpose of the axis (second vertebra) shake your head no
Red bone marrow is found where and what does it produce found in spongy bones and produces all types of blood cells
Yellow bone marrow is found where and consist of found in long bones and consists of fat cells and connective tissue
Calcitonin does what causes blood calcium to be deposited in the bones as calcium salts
What cause blood calcium to be deposited in the bones as calcium salts Calcitonin
what is another name for Amphiarthrosis joint Symphysis
define symphysis joint slightly moveable joint (vertebrae)
whats another name for Diarthrosis joint synovial joint
hallux= big toe
What nutrients are part of the bone matrix calcium & phosphorus
The site of muscle attachment on the femur is the trochanter
The pivot joint for the atlas and the axis is known as the odontoid process
Created by: jhowe2323