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Resp Sys Acid/Base

Respiratory System and Acid/Base Exam CCC PN 105

QuestionAnswer
Functions of respiratory system Air distribution, gas exchange, filter-warm-humidify air
What does the respiratory system do supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body
what does the respiratory system look like a hollow, upside-down tree
what are thin-walled air sacs in the lungs alveoli
how does the respiratory system exchange gas passive transport of diffusion
what are the divisions of the respiratory tract upper and lower
what is included in the upper respiratory tract nose, pharynx, larynx
what is included in the lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchi, lungs
what is a specialized membrane lining the air distribution tubes in the "tree" respiratory mucosa
what forms over the mucosa mucous blanket
what is the function of the mucous air purification by trapping dust and pollen
what does the mucous blanket cover nose, throat, alveoli, and bronchi
what beats upwards to move mucous up and out of pharynx cilia
where does the air enter the respiratory tract nose/nares/nostrils
what is the nasal septum partition that divides the mose into two cavities
what are the paranasal sinuses frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, ethmoidal
what do the paranasal sinuses do warm and moisten the air; sense of smell
these tear ducs drain into the nose lacrimal sacs
these drain into the mose, are lined with mucous membranes and lighten the skull paranasal sinuses
pharynx the throat, lined with mucous membranes
where does the pharynx enter nasal cavities
where does the pharynx leave larynx
how long is the pharynx 5 in
how long is the trachea 4.5 in
three parts of pharynx naso, oro, largeno
larengopharynx lower, behind larynx
oropharynx middle, behind mouth
nasopharynx upper, behind nose
open into pharynx nasal cavities, mouth, espohagus, larynx, and auditory tubes
open into nasopharynx pharyngeal tonsils (adnoids) and openings of auditory tubes
open into oropharynx tonsils
function of pharynx air distribution/passage, moves foods/liquids
larynx voicebox, lined with mucous membranes
larynx made of several pieces of cartilidge
adam's apple largest pice of cartlidge (thyroid cartlidge)
epiglottis trap door
what does epiglottis do prevents food from entering into trachea
glottis space between vocal cords
vocal cords stretch across to produce sound
3 parts of larynx vocal cords, epiglottis, glottis
function of larynx air distritbution to/from lungs, voice production
trachea wind pipe tube, lined with mucous membrane
trachea c-shaped rings of cartlidge hold it open and protect from collapse
function of trachea passageway for air to/from lungs, produce and move mucous
obstruction of trachea can cause death in minutes, 4000 accidental per year in US
obstruction of trachea by tumors, swelling, choking
first branch from trachea primary bronchi
bronchioles end in clusters of alveolar sacs
alveoli make up walls of alveolar sacs
function of bronchi/bronchioles air passage
function of alveoli gas exchange between air and blood
R lung 3 lobes
L lung 2 lobes
apex narrow, upper part under collar bone
base broad, lower part resting on diaphragm
pleura moist, slippery membrane lining lung cavities
function of pleura prevent friction during breathing
visceral pleura covers lungs
pareital pleura lines thoracic cavity
intrapleural space between pleura linings
function of pleura pulmonary ventilation
respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between living organisms and their environments
2 phases of pulmonary ventilation inspiration, expiration
what causes air to move in and out changes in size and shape of thorax causing changes in air pressure in chest cavity and lungs
inspiration inhaling, active process
expiration exhaling, passive process
diaphragm flattens, increasing chest area top to bottom; external intercostals contract and elevate increasing chest area side to side and front to back inspiration
most important organ of inspiration diaphragm
quiet process, returning thorax to resting size and shape with aid of elaxtic lung recoil expiration
abdominal muscles elevate chest cavity to decrease thorax size while internal intercostals deptress rib cage and decrease throat size, forcing air out during speaking, singing, or exercise forceful expiration
transports oxygen and carbon dioxide blood
measures volumes of air exhanged spirometer
air normally breathed in/out with each breath tidal volume TV
air forcefully inhalled after a normal inspiration inspiratory reserve volume IRV
air forcefully expelled after a normal breathing out expiratory reserve volume ERV
greatest amount of air breathed out in one expiration, includes TV, IRV, ERV vital capacity
air remaining in lungs after ERV residual volume RV
permits the body to adjust to varying demands for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal respiratory regulation
respiratory control centers inspiratory control center, expiratory control center; produce normal rate/depth respirations
where are respiratory control centers medulla
normal respirations 12-18 per minute
pulse ox measures oxygen saturation
regualar oxygen saturation 97%
eupnea normal breathing, 12-18 per minute
hyperventilation rapid and deep breathing
hypoventilation slow and shallow breathing
dyspnea labored or difficult breathing, often associated with slow and shallow breathing
apnea brief, stopped respirations
respiratory arrest failure to resume breathing after brief, stopped respirations
# indicating hydrogen ions in fluid pH
neutral pH 7.0
alkaline pH above 7.0
acidic pH below 7.0
increase in hydrogen means lower pH, more acidic
decrease in hydrogen means higher pH, more alkaline
buffers prevent sharp changes in pH when acid/base is added
respiratory mechanisms remove carbon dioxide from blooc with carbonic acid (H2CO3), increases blood to arterial level
urinary mechanisms kidneys acidify urine, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) added to reduce acidity
most effective regulator of blood pH urinary mechanisms
arterial pH 7.45
venous pH 7.35
acidosis too much acid
alkalosis too much base
regulates sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) kidneys
regulates carbonic acid (H2CO3) lungs
metabolic distrubances affect kidneys
respiratory disturbances affect lungs
metabolic acidosis not enough sodium bicarbonate, low pH
metabolic alkalosis too much sodium bicarbonate, high pH
respiratory acidosis too much carbonic acid, low pH
respiratory alkalosis not enough carbonic acid, high pH
Created by: cmp12345