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Gov't 2301 Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
All of the following are participants in American politics EXCEPT: foreign citizens.
Which of the following questions are NOT addressed by political science? What goods and services should be made available to citizens?
During the past several decades, _____ has had a particularly negative impact on public trust in government. Television
Because Thomas Hobbes believed that people, left to themselves, naturally resort to violence, he argued that societes must... form governments to insure domestic tranquility by maintaining order.
A good that cannot be withheld from any citizen, whether or not he or she pays for it is a(n)... public good.
All of the following are public goods EXCEPT... automobiles.
Free competition for voluntary exchange among indiviudals, firms, and corporations is known as... a free market.
The underlying value of democracy is... the dignity of the indiviudal.
John Locke argued that _____ is/are superior to all human laws and governments. natural law
Citizen particpation in the decisions that affect individuals' lives is a necessary part of ... democracy.
The principle of limited government means... that government is itself restrained by law.
In democracies, ____ set forth the liberties of indivudals and restrain government from interfering with these liberties. Constitution
Town meetings and other forms of direct democracy are challenged because... this form of democracy requires citizens to invest a lot of their scarce time and energy.
John Locke Extremely influential; approach to life state of nature; natural law, life, liberty and property
Thomas Hobbes Social K Theorist/pessimist with state of nature; humans @ war w/each other; gov't s/b headed by a strong ruler. Life w/o gov't: "a war where every man is enemy to every man," where people live in "continual fear/danger of violent death."
Characteristics of Democracy: 1. Individual Dignity Underlying value of democracy; each indv. possesses "certain inalienable Rights, among these are Life, Liberty, and Property."
Direct Democracy (pure or participatory democracy) Governing system in which every person particpates actively in every public decision, rather than delegating decision making to representatives. (rare)
Indirect/Representative democracy Governing system in which public decision making is delegated to representatives of the people chosen by popular vote in free, open and periodic elections.
Elitism Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of indivuals or institutions.
Pluralism Theory that democracy can be achieved through copetition among multiple organized groups and that indivuals can participate in politics through group memberships and elections.
Public Policy Approach Response or lack of response by governmental decision makers to an issue. (5 steps of how action is undertaken @ national level)
Public Policy Approach Step 1: Agenda Building "Is this situation a problem?" a problem has to be brought to public attention; process which problems become matters of gov't concern and action
Public Policy Approach Step 2: Policy Formation "What do we do about the problem?"
Public Policy Approach Step 3: Policy Adoption "Pass a law."
Public Policy Approach Step 4: Policy Implementation "Make the law work;" put the law into practice; rules w/enalties attached.
Public Policy Approach Step 5: Policy Evaluation "Is it working? Can we improve it?" There is always going to be a conflict.
The Purposes of Government: 1. Establish justice & insure domestice tranquility Gov't manages conflict & maintains order; social k.
The Purposes of Government: 2. Provide for the common defense Gov't is responsible for the country's defense since Revolutionary War.
The Purposes of Government: 3. Promote the general welfare Gov't provides public goods, regulates society, uses income transfers(social security/Medicare)
The Purposes of Government: 4. Secure the blessings of liberty Added responsibility: protect indivudal liberty by ensuring that all people are treated equally b/f the law.
The Purposes of Government: 5. Ways to Evaluate Normaltive analysis: indv. own opinion/editorial; state whether a policy is good/bad Empirical analysis: present w/statistics (no judgment)
Characteristics of Democracy: 2. Equality Equal protection of the law for every indv.; equality extends to equality of opportunity-obligation of gov't to ensure all Americans have an equal opportunity to develop their full potential.
Characteristics of Democracy: 3. Participation in Decision Making Indv. participation in the decisions that affect indvs.' lives; s/b free to choose for themselves how they want to live; indv. participation in gov't is necessary for indv. dignity.
Characteristics of Democracy: 4. Majority Rule: One Person, One Vote Collective decision making in democracies must be by majority rule, w/each person having one vote; each person's vote must be equal to every other person's; votes must count equally & a majority vote must decide the issue, even if foolish.
Politics Process that determines who will occupy the role of leadership; process where decisions are made;
Politics (con't) Decide who gets what, when and how; broader, more participants (voters, interest groups). Who: participants; What: services that gov't provides (edu,welfare,infrastructure); When: pp when one gets benefits& when; How:
Government Org extending to the whole society that can legitimately use force to carry out its decsions. Institution grounded in force; inst. w/authority to make policies on our behalf; conglomerate of services
Paradox of Democracy Do we abide by the principle of majority rule & allow the majority to do what it wants? Or do we defend the principle of indv. liberty & limit the majority's power?
Paradox of Democracy: Limiting Power of Majorities Founders wrote Constitution & adopted Bill of Rights limiting power of gov' over the indv, putting some personal liberties beyond the reach of majorities; est. limited gov't (gov't restrained by law).
Paradox of Democracy: Totalitarianism: Unlimited Gov't Power Total life of the indv. is subject to gov't control.
Paradox of Democracy: Authoritarianism Concerned w/control of gov't; live w/o gov't interference, but have no role in politics, no control over gov't, no competitive policial parties, no elections, and barred from political life; less oppressive than totalitarianism.
Paradox of Democracy: Constitutional Government Constitutions are the principle means by whcih govt'l powers are limited.
Robert Dahl criteria for democracy 1. Right to vote for all adults and vote to be counted. 2. right to be elected; express diff. viewpoint
Created by: mrslmc