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BIO202 - Ch 23 - Digestive System - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

2 main groups of digestive system organs. Alimentary canal & accessory digestive organs.
Alimentary canal GI tract (gut) - continuous, muscular digestive tube that digests & absorbs food.
Organs of alimentary canal Mouth, pharyx, esophagus, stomach, sm. intestine, & lg. intestine.
Organs of accessory digestive organs. Teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver & pancreas
Name the 6 essential activities of food processing by digestive system. (1) indegestion, (2) propulsion, (3) mechanical digestion, (4) chemical digestion, (5) absorption, (6) defecation
Segmentation Rhythmic local constriction of intestines - mixes food w/digestive juices & increases efficiency of absorption.
When is chemical digestion essentially complete? In the small intestine.
Major absorptive site in digestive system. Small intestine - absorbed through mucosal cells by active/passive transport into blood of lymph.
Digestive activity is provoked by __. a range of mechanical & chemical stimuli
Sensors (__) are located in walls of tract organs. mechanoreceptors & chemoreceptors
Short reflexes are mediates entirely by __. local (enteric) plexuses (gut-brain) in response to GI tract stimuli.
Long reflexes are initiated by stimuli __. involving CNS centers & extrinsic autonomic nerves
Smooth muscle activity inhibited by __. VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) or nitric oxide.
All ventral body cavities contain __. serous membranes
peritoneum Serous membrane lining interior of abdominal cavity & covers abdominal organs.
mesentery Peritoneum that extends to digestive organs from body wall & carries blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves & stores fat.
retroperitoneal organs Pancreas & parts of lg. intestine that adhere to dorsal abdominal wall w/o mesentery.
intraperitoneal/peritoneal organs stomach & digestive organs that keep mesentery & remain in peritoneal cavity.
peritonitis Inflammation of peritoneum - leaks stomach juices or burst appendix & feces (bacteria).
What arteries serve digestive organs & hepatic portal circulation? Splanchnic circulation - hepatic, spleen, & L. gastric branches & mesenteric arteries.
4 tunic layers of alimentary canal Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, & serosa.
Mucosa (mucous membrane) Innermost layer, (1) secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, & hormones, (2) absorbs & protects against infectious disease.
Epithelium of mucosa Simple columnar w/goblet cells - diffuse endocrine
Which layer is responsible for segmentation & peristalsis? Muscularis externa
Serosa Outermost layer of intraperitoneal organs - visceral peritoneum - areolar CT w/mesothelium
__ organs have both serosa & adventitia. Retroperitoneal
In-house nerve supply of alimentary canal. Enteric neurons - semi-autonomous
Myenteric nerve plexus supplies? Gi tract wall & controls its motility.
__ nervous system has more neurons than entire spinal cord. enteric
Posterior of oral cavity is the __. oropharynx
Oral mucosa responds to injury by producing __. defensins - antimicrobial peptides
What rises reflexively to close off nasopharynx when we swallow? soft palate
Ankyloglossia "Tongue-tied" - short lingual frenulum
mumps Inflammation of parotid glands (myxovirus).
2 types of secretory cells in salivary glands. Mucous & serous
Serous cells produce? Watery secretion containing enzymes, ions & mucin.
Parotid glands contain only __. serous cells
Saliva is __. hypo-osmotic - 97-99.5% water - pH 6.75 - 7, mucin, lysozyme, & IgA
Lingual lipase Fat-digesting enzyme
Created by: Ladystorm