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bilaminar, cleavage, trilaminar stages

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

after implantation, in the bilaminar stage, the trophoblast cells produces a new layer of cells called this   syncytotrophoblast  
all trophoblastic cells that are not part of the syncytorophoblast are called this   cytotrophoblast  
do syncytotrophoblastic nuclei divide?   no  
how do syncytotrophoblastic nuclei proliferate?   from contribution from the cytotrophoblast  
describe what happens in the decidua rxn   glandular secretions cause the endometrium surrounding the embryo to become edematous with glycogen and lipids  
this is the region of the endometrium that will later develop into the maternal component of the placenta   decidua  
what two layers make up the bilaminar disc   epiblast and hyphoblast  
after syncytotrophoblast proliferation occurs, what three layers are formed?   amnion, epiblast, hyphoblast  
this is a thin membrane which forms along the interior surface of the cytotrophoblast   amnion  
this is a sheet of columnar cells where the fetus develops from.   epiblast  
this is a fluid filled cavity that develops between the amnion and epiblast, where the fetus will eventually grow into.   amniotic cavity  
fluid from amniocentesis is taken from this structure   amniotic cavity  
this is a sheet of small cuboidal cells between the epiblast and blastocele   hypoblast  
when the blastocyst completely embeds in the endometrium, this structure closes the hole that was created on the surface of the endometrium   fibrin plug  
the hypoblast spreads around hte inner surface of the cytotrophoblast to create this thin membrane   extraembryonic endoderm  
this structure consists of the extraembryonic endoderm and the space that it surrounds   yolk sac (this space is no longer known as the blastocele)  
the extraembryonic mesoderm forms between these two layers   cytotrophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm  
the connecting stalk develops into what embryonic structure?   umbillical cord  
the layer of mesoderm lining the yolk sac is called this   splanchnic extraembryonic mesoderm  
the layer of the mesoderm lining the cytotrophoblast is called this   somatic extraembryonic mesoderm  
what three layers are in the chorion?   syncytotrophoblast, trophoblast, extraembryonic mesoderm  
the layer of the chorion lining the yolk sac is the...   splanchnic extraembryonic mesoderm  
the layer of the chorion lining the cytotrophoblast is called this   somatic extraembryonic mesoderm  
what often causes a delay in diagnosing pregnancy?   increased blood flow to the lacunar spaces, which produces bleeding and is often mistaken for menstrual blood.  
the ovum is drawn into the oviduct via sweeping of this structure   fimbrae  
the ovum is propelled toward the uterus via this structure   cilia  
fertilization occurs at this structure of the fallopian tube   ampulla  
in this process, the sperm are prepared for fertilization by removal of a glycoprotein coat   capacitation  
when more than one sperm fertilize an egg   polyspermy  
the three layers of the ovum from outside to inside are?   corona radiata, zona pullucida, zona rxns  
once the sperm reach the zona pellucida, this type of reaction occurs, wehre the cap surrounding the sperm head ruptures. it releases digestive enzymes that dissolve glycoproteins of the zona   acrosomal reaction  
when sperm penetrate the zona rxn, it induces the rupture of granules lining the ovum's plasma. this reaction is called...   cortical reaction. it prevents multiple sperm from going into the ovum  
when the male and female pronucleus come together, what do they do?   the pronuclei do not fuse, but they are drawn together via mitotic spindle, and the chromosomes intermix.  
a series of rapid mitotic divisions of the early embryo that serve to multiply the genomes required for embryogenesis.   cleavage  
these are cells of the early embryo. they subdivide into smaller clusters but the entire structure remains about the same size.   blastomeres  
the third cleavage that results about three days after fertilization results in this structure   morula  
when blastomeres of the eight cell embryo are pulled closer together via tight junctions   compaction  
when the embryonic structure is at the uterus, fluid begins to seep through the zona pellucida forming intracellular spaces called this   blastoceles  
the primitive streak is made up of these two structures   primitive groove and primitive ridges  
the cranial end of the primitive streak   hansen's node  
the caudal end of the primitive streak   primitive groove  
this structure serves as an organizer, secreting growth factors that induce tissue differentiation and embryonic patterning   hansen's node  
the prmitive streak expands in which direction?   it begins at the caudal end and elongates toward the cranial end then extends across about two thirds the length of the disc. the streak then regresses, completely disappearing.  
this process is the first mass movement of cells serving to compartmentalize the embryo into three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm   gastrulation  
the primary germ layers develop from this structure   epiblast  
as cells migrate into spaces between epiblast andhypoblast, they spread in lateral and cranial directions. in the lateral direction, mesoderm cell smigrate to the edge of the germ disc where they contact this structure   extraemryonic mesoderm  
which cells are older, cranial or caudal mesodermal cells?   cranial  
this develops if the primitive streak fails to regress completely. it is the most common newborn tumor and consists of a mixture of different cell types bc they develop from pluripotent cells. can be removed surgically   sacrococcygeal teratoma  
this happens when the primitive streak regresses prematurely so the embryo has insufficient mesoderm in the caudal region.   caudal dysgenesis  
in caudal dysgenesis, when the legs become fused, a mermaid like appearance happens..this structure is called...   sirenomelia  
a common teratogenic factor present that may result in caudal dysgenesis is this...   maternal diabetes  
a cartilagenous rod that extends through the midline and provides rigidity to the body. in vertebrates, it serves as an organizer.   notochord  
after the notochord serves its purpose as an organizer the majority of it generates via apoptosis, but some notochord structures do persist in the adult...   nucleus pulposus  
epiblast cells that invaginate through the primitive pit remain contiguous, and extend in cranial direction to form a hollow tube called this   notochordal process  
is the notochord ectodermal, endodermal, or mesodermal?   mesoderm  


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