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The Cardiovascular-Terminology-By Ann DePetris

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Two medical roots terms for vessel   angi/o, and vaso/o  
Medical root term for crown   coron/o  
Medical prefix meaning pressure   tens-  
Medical root for ventricle   ventricul/o  
Medical root term for clot   thromb/o  
Medical root for dilated   varic/o  
What does cardiovascular system do   Delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells helps regular body temperature, and collect waste products from the cells and ransport them to other parts of the body for elimination.  
What are the three layer of the heart   endocardium, myocardium, epicardium  
What is medical term for the sac that surrounds the heart   pericardium  
What is the inner layer of the pericardium   epicardium  
What is the name of the wall seperating the heart   septum  
What does the right side of the heart do   pumps deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary circuit (lungs) where it picks up oxygen  
What does the left side of the heart do   pumps the oxygenated blood to all other part of the body through the systemic circuit  
What is the right artrioventricular valve called   tricuspid valve  
What is the left artrioventricular valve called   bicuspid (mitral) valve  
What are the exit valves called   semilunar  
What is the exit point for leaving the right ventricle   pulmonary semilunar valve  
Name of the valve located left ventricle and the aorta.   aortic semilunar valve  
What is the pacemaker of the heart called   Sinoatrial (SA) node  
What is the secon electrical impulse node called   atrioventricular (AV) node  
Where does the artrioventricular (AV) node transmits electrical impusles   Bundle of His  
Where does the Bundle of His transmits impulses to   Prukinje fibers  
Each contraction called   systole  
Relaxation phase called   diastole  
The electrical activity of the heart can be visualized and recorded on an _____________   electrocardiogram ( ECG or EKG )  
A normal or __________________ originates in the SA node and has a normal rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute (BPM).   sinus rhythm  
Three phases of cardiac cycle   Diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole  
The ________ of a blood vessel is the opening through which blood fl ows.   lumen  
The nervous system can stimulate the lumen to be more open, called ___________ (sometimes vasodilatation) (vas/o means “vessel”; dilation from the English verb dilate , meaning “to open up a hollow structure”), or more closed, called __________   vasodilation, vasoconstriction  
Blood pressure can be measured by several methods, but the most common is with an instrument called a ______________   sphygmomanometer  
Common name for sphygmomanometer   blood pressure cuff  
The formed elements in blood consist of red blood cells (RBCs), or ______ ; platelets, or ; and white blood cells (WBCs) , or   erythrocytes,thrombocytes,leukocytes  
The oxygen binds to a protein in the red blood cell called   hemoglobin (Hb),  
What is Hb   hemoglobin  
What is HDL   High-density lipoprotein  
What is HR   Heart Rate  
What is HTN   Hypertension  
What is ICU   Intensive Care Unit  
What is LDL   Low-density lipoprotein  
What is MI   myocardion ifarction  
What is P   pulse  
What is PTCA   percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  
What is RBC   Red Blood Cell  
What is SA   sinoatrial  
What is SOB   shortness of breath  
What is WBC   white blood cell  
________ are drugs that increase the force of the myocardial contractions with-out causing an increase in oxygen consumption; they are used in CHF and sometimes atrial fi brillation.   Cardiac glycosides  
_______ restore heart rhythm to nor-mal.   Antiarrhythmics  
______ remove water or fl uid from the body, thus decreasing blood pressure and work-load of the heart.   Diuretics  
______________ increase the lumen of the blood vessels (dilate the vessels). This action increases blood fl ow and also treats hypertension (high blood pressure).   Vasodilators  
__________ decrease the inside diameter of the blood vessels, causing an increase in blood pressure. Vasoconstrictors are used to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) and shock.   Vasoconstrictors  
_________ (anti- means “against”; angina is constricting chest pain) drugs are used to treat angina or chest pain. They frequently are part of the drug group, nitrates, and cause vasodilation by relaxing the vascular smooth muscle.   Antianginal  
_______ block the production of cholesterol in the liver. They lower LDL (“bad” cholesterol) and triglycerides and have a mild effect in raising HDL (“good” cholesterol). Because of the job they do, statins are part of a group called _______ drugs.   Statins, antihyperlipidemic  
A blood ___________ is any abnormal-ity of the blood.   dyscrasia(dys- means “bad”; -crasia means “blending” or “mixture”)  
There are three major types of abnormalities involving the blood: ______ , _________ , and __________ .   anemia,leukemia,clotting disorders  
_________ An abnormally low level of hemoglobin or low level of RBCs, caused by exces-sive bleeding or hemorrhage, other conditions causing blood cells to rupture, or failure of bone marrow to produce RBCs   Anemia  
_________ Characterized by an excessive increase in the number of WBCs   Leukemia  
_______ hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a defi ciency of a special clotting factor   hemophilia  
________ insufficient number of thrombocytes caused by insuffi cient production or increased destruction)   thrombocytopenia (-penia is a suffi x meaning “a defi ciency”;  
___________ (extreme clotting or coagulation caused by massive burns, trauma, cancer, or infection)   disseminated intravascular coagulation  
______________ is diagnosed when the heart cannot effectively pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs for oxygen and nutrients.   Congestive heart failure (CHF )  
Over time, an increase in blood pressure can cause the arterial walls to become hard and thick, resulting in __________.   arteriosclerosis  
arteriosclerosis and hypertrophy can be caused by ________ over time.   high blood pressure  
________ , occurs when the systolic blood pressure ex-ceeds 140 mmHg or the diastolic pressure is greater than 90 mmHg.   hypertension ( HTN )  
_________ , a method of treatment for fi brillation, involves the application of an electric current to restore a normal heart rhythm.   Cardioversion  
________ , applying radiofrequency waves to the heart, is used to cure a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, such as some tachycardias and atrial fi brillation.   Ablation therapy  
sustained __________, in which the ventricles ineffectively pump blood, can be fatal.   ventricular fibrillation  
___________ occurs when the atria beat faster than the ventricles.   Atrial fibrillation (A-fib)  
_________ describes rapid, random, and ineffective contractions of the heart.   Fibrillation  
___________ is a formation of a blood clot, or thrombus, in a blood vessel (   Thrombosis (thromb/o means “blood clot”)  
A_____________( MI ) , or heart at-tack, results from a lack of oxygen supply to the myocardium.   myocardial infarction (MI)  
What is the root work for death   necr/o  
_________________ (insertion of a catheter and contrast dye into the coronary arteries to detect blockage),   cardiac catheterization  
_________ (an ultrasonic evaluation of the motion of the heart),   echocardiography  
A ________________ (also sometimes called a thallium stress test) may also be ordered to assess the blood fl ow through the heart during a dictated activity.   nuclear stress test  
_________ agents may be administered directly into the coronary artery to dissolve the clot, open up the artery, and restore blood fl ow.   Thrombolytic (-lysis means “destroy”)  
___________ Surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is blocked with atheromatous plaques   Endarterectomy (end- means “within, inner”; arter/o means “artery”; -ectomy means “surgical removal”):  
__________ Involves the insertion of a balloon-tipped catheter to open the blocked coronary artery.   Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (per- means “through”; cutane/o means “skin”; -ous means “pertaining to”; angi/o means “vessel”; -plasty means “surgical repair”):  
____________ is a mesh tube that is implanted into an artery to provide support and prevent re-stenosis   Arterial stent  
______________ An open thoracic surgical procedure to graft another blood vessel (   oronary artery bypass graft (CABG)  


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