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Respiratory System

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Describe the function(s) of the larynx   ● To provide a patent airway● To act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into proper channels●To function in voice production Prevents Aspiration  
Describe what influences the loudness of a person’s voice   Depends upon the force at which the air rushes across the vocal cords  
In relation to the walls of the alveoli describe the function of type II cells   secrete surfactant coats alveoli surfaces, reduces surface tension  
Describe the pleurae and its importance to the integrity of the lungs   ● Thin, double-layered serosa keeps shape● Parietal pleuraCovers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm continues around heart and between lungsVisceral or pulmonary, pluraaCovers the external lung surface Divides the thoracic cavity i  
Define intrapulmonary pressure   Pressure within the alveoli  
Explain Boyle’s law   Boyle’s law is the relationship between the pressure and volume of gases P¹v¹=P²v²P= Pressure of gas in mm Hgv= Volume of gas in cubic millimetersSubscripts 1 and 2 represent the initial and resulting conditions, respectively  
Explain Dalton’s law   ● the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture●The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture  
Describe surfactant and its function   ● it’s a detergent like complex keeps water from building and blocking gas exhange●reduces surface tension and helps keep the alveoli from collapsingLubricant – rubbing sound if missing  
Explain the Bohr effect   ●Declining blood pH (acidosis) and increasing PCO2 weaken the Hb-O2 bond  
Explain the benefits – if any – of increased carbon dioxide in a healthy person   ●reflex to make you breath- recpetors detect CO2 to cause breathing  
Describe the function of the dorsal respiratory group   ●excites muscles and eupina, pace setting center, Dormant during aspiration  
Explain what influences the increase in ventilation that occur with exercise   ●builds up latic acid. Must breath out CO2  
Be familiar with the different forms of lung cancer   Squamous cell carcinoma (20-40% of cases) arise in bronchial epitheliumAdenocarcinoma (25-35% of cases) originates in peripheral lung areaSmall cell carcinoma (20-25% of cases) contains lymphocyte cells that originate in the primary bronchi  
Describe the events necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2   Carbon dioxide diffuses into RBCs&combines w/ water to form carbonic acid (h2co3), which quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions & bicarbonate ions●In RBCs, carbonic anhydrase reversibly catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide &water to carbonic acid  
Describe the events necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2 at the tissue   Bicarbonate quickly diffuses from RBCs into the plasma The chloride shift- to counter balance the outrush of negative bicarbonate ions from the RBCs chloride ions move from the plasma into the ErythrocytesPulmonary ventilation, external respiration, tra  
Define Tidal Volume (TV)   ●During normal quiet breathing about 500ml of air moves into and then out of the lungs with each breath. Smokers have decreased volume  
Define vital capacity and the ideal vital capacity   decreases in females and children●VC is the total amount of exchangeable air. It is the sum of TH, IRV, and ERV. VC is approximately 4800ml  
Define and explain causes of hypoxia sickle cell enemia   ●Inadequate Oxygen delivery to body tissues Anemic Hypoxia-too few RBCs of form RBCs that contain abnormal ot too little HbIschemic (stagnant) Hypoxia-results when blood circulation is impaired or blockedHistotoxic Hypoxia-Occurs when body cells are  
Identify the for stimulus(’s) for breathing   Excitatory and inhibitory hypothalamic, cortical control, pulmonary irritant reflex, inflation reflex  
Describe the location of the respiratory control centers   Medullary Respiratory & PonsSmooth out inspiration and expiration transition and vice versa  
Medullary Respiratory center   The dorsal respiratory group (DRG), or inspiratory centerIs located near the root of nerve IVAppears to be the pacesetting centerExcites the inspiratory muscles and sets eupneaBecomes dormant during expiration  
Define inspiratory capacity   The diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract and the rib Cage TV+RIV●The lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases●Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until intrapleural pressure=atmospheric pressure  
Describe the function(s) of CO2   Dialater of smooth muscle, transport O2 to tissue, regulates PH levels  
Describe how O2 and CO@ are exchanged in the lungs   CO2 and H2O attract O2 to cross membrane  
Describe the pharynx and it’s relations to the auditory tubes   Drains middle ear cavities  
Describe the function(s) of the oropharynx   Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate 2the epiglottis Opens to the oral cavity via an archway called the faucesServes as a common passageway for food &airThe epithelial lining is protective sratified squamous epithelium Palatine tonsils  
Describe what if found in the right lobe of the lung   ●Right lung is separated into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures●There are 10 bronchopulmonary segments in each lung  
Define carbon monoxide   is odorless, colorless gas that competes vigorously with oxygen for heme binding sites  
Define hypoxemia   decrease O2 transport in the blood  
Define hypoxia   whatever the cause inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues  
Name the respiratory structure that provide the greatest surface are for gas exchange   Alveoli sac and capillary walls  
Describe what the respiratory membrane is made of   only 0.5-1µm thick allows for efficient gas exchange a total surface area(in males)of 60m² Thicken if lungs become waterlogged &edematous where gas exchange is inadequate &o2deprivation results Decrease in surface area w/ emphysema when walls of adjacent  
Identify causative factors that might lead to a gas emboli   pressure changes that the body cant compensate  
Define inspiratory capacity and relate to the respiratory process   total air you can inhale  
the age at which a premature baby can survive   28 weeks  
respiratory rate of a newborn   ●40-80 respirations per min shallow uneven breathing. Breaths though nose and with belly  
Identify factors or structures responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall   Pleura  
Describe physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation   ●air resistance, inspiration uses diaphragm, alveoli condition  
Identify characteristics of emphysema   ●Is distinguished by permanent enlargement of the alveoli, accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls. Invariably the lungs lose their elasticity.  


   






 
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