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Constitution and Fed

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Articles of Confederation  
The governmental structure of the first government of the United States of America (1774-1781). Existed during Revolutionary War and Northwest Ordinance (by which new states would enter Union) and set precedent for federalism.  
New Jersey Plan  
Plan for the government of the USA by which each state would be represented equally in the Congress. Federal government would be weaker than Virginia Plan.  
Virginia Plan  
Plan for the government of the USA in which the federal government would be strong and each state would be represented in Congress proportionately to its population.  
Great Compromise  
Solution to disagreement between VA and NJ Plans. Bicameral legislature created with a House of Representatives and a Senate  
Three Fifths Compromise  
Solved the conflict between Northern and Southern states over slavery by counting each slave as 3/5 of a person when counting for each state‚Äôs electoral votes in the Electoral College  
The Federalist Papers  
Articles supporting the ratification of the Constitution. Primary source for understanding the original intent of the Founders of our country.  
Federalists  
those who supported the ratification of the Constitution  
Anti-Federalists  
those who were against the ratification of the Constitution  
Bill of Rights  
1st ten Amendments to the Constitution. Was promised by Federalists as way of persuading states to ratify Constitution  
Necessary and Proper Clause  
Part of the Constitution that allows Congress to make laws necessary and proper to carrying out its powers  
Full Faith and Credit Clause  
Part of the Constitution that requires states to accept court judgments, licenses, contracts and other civil acts of all other states  
Supremacy Clause  
Conflicts between state and federal law are resolved in favor of federal law  
Separation of Powers  
Power is separated between legislative branch, judicial branch and executive branch. Also prevents a person from serving in more than one branch of government at the same time.  
Checks and Balances  
Branches of government must share power and cooperate with each other in order to get anything done. In addition, each branch may limit/check the powers/existence of each other.  
Veto  
Reject legislation  
Amendment  
Changing the Constitution or a bill by adding parts  
Ratify  
Approve  
Bicameral Legislature  
Two house legislature  
Pluralist Theory  
Political power is so diffuse in our country that no one part is able to dominate  
Marxist Theory  
Political power is concentrated in the hands of those that control business and industry  
Power-Elite Theory  
Political power is concentrated in the hands of a small, elite group of political and economic elites  
Bureaucratic Theory  
Political power is held by those that make up the bureaucracy, those that control the day to day activities of our government  
Federalism  
a system of government where the national and state governments share powers  
Dual Federalism  
period during early part of our country where national and state governments were very independent. Has declined in importance since then.  
Enumerated Powers  
powers specifically given only to the federal/national government in our country  
Reserved Powers  
powers specifically given to the state government in our country  
Concurrent Powers  
powers shared by the national and state governments in our country  
Categorical Grants  
aid with strict provisions/rules from the federal government given to the states (favored by liberals) (Examples: Medicaid and the Food Stamp Programs)  
Block Grants  
aid with less restrictions and rules on how it can be spent (favored by conservatives  


   






 
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