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Cardio

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
Which CA supplies the SAN?   Right CA:60% Left CA 40%  
Which CA supplies the AVN?   Right CA  
Where does the ascending aorta lie in the mediastinum?   Pericardial sac at lower edge of CC3 and CC2  
Where does the IVC pass through the diaphragm?   T8  
Explain MAP relative to SV   MAP = CO x TPR CO = HR x SV  
Describe the process that occurs when CO2 increases   Central chemoreceptors react and increase breathing rate accordingly  
Describe the blood flow pathway   SVC,IVC,CA --> Right atrium -->Tricuspid Valve --> Right Ventricle -->Pulmonic valve -->Pulmonary artery -->Lungs --> Pulmonary veins x4 --> Left atrium --> Mitral valve --> Left ventricle --> Aorta  
How does chronotropic agents work?   Alters the rate of decay  
How does inotropic agents works?   Affects the contractility of the heart  
How does Beta Receptors increase the heart rate?   Stimulates adenylate cyclase--> cAMP --> protein kinases --> HCN  
Name the hormonal controls of blood pressure   ADH, RAAS, Catecholamines, ANP, and NO  
An increase in BP is detected by? Where is it located and how does it work?   Baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These are detected by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve  
An increase in pH is detected by? Where is it located and how does it work?   Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid body and the aortic body . Theses work by depolarizing and exocytose neurotransmitters  
Think of the graph for the AP of cardiomyocytes. Now label it   Phase 4: Sodium and Calcium channels are closed.Potassium channels are open Phase 0: Fast Sodium channels open Phase 1: Transient potassium channels open Phase 2: L type Calcium VGC open = Efflux of potassium Phase 3: Calcium VGC close,K repolarize  
How does the body react for: an increase of BP   Baroreceptors detect the increase and parasympathetic nervous system is activated. ACh binds to muscarinic 2 receptors and cause vasodilation  
How does the body react for: a decrease in BP   Baroreceptors detect this and sympathetic nervous system is activated. NE and E is released which binds to beta 1 receptors and cause vasoconstriction  
How does the body react for: an increase in pH   Central chemoreceptors communicate with the resp. centre and increase breathing rate  
What does QRS represent?   Ventricular depolarization  
What does the P wave and T wave represent?   Atrial depolarization and Ventricular repolarization  
Name the pathway of blood for fetuses   Vitelline, Umbilical & Cardinal veins --> Sinus venous --> Primordial Atrium --> Atrioventricular canal --> Primordial ventricle --> Bulbus Cordis --> Truncus arteriosus --> Aortic Sac --> Aortic arches  
Where is the SAN located?   Upper part of the right atrium  
Where is the AVN located?   Above coronary sinus on interatrial septum  
What is the conus arteriosus?   Infundibulum located at the upper front part of the right ventricle connects to pulmonary trunk  
Name the shunts in the fetal circulation   Foramen ovale, Ductus Arteriosus, Ductus Venosus  
What causes the closing of the foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus   Increase of pressure in the left ventricle closes the foramen ovale. Lungs release bradykinin to close the ductus arteriosus.  
What do positive chronotropes do? Name an example   NE, Increases the rate of decay, thereby increasing heart rate  
What do negative chronotropes do? Name an example   ACh, decreases decay which then decreases heart rate  
What do positive inotropes do? Name an example   Increase contractility, NE  
What do negative inotropes do? Name an example   Decrease contractility, Acidosis  
How does beta 1 receptors work?   Increase HR, Contractility, renin release. Stimulates adenylate cyclase --> cAMP --> Protein kinases --> HCN  
How does the sympathetic nervous system work?   Adrenergic nerves release NE and E, Adrenoreceptors bind NE and E, Beta 1 adrenoreceptor increases stimulation of HCN channels  
How does the parasympathetic nervous system work?   ACh binds to M2 muscarinic receptors that decrease adenylate cyclase which then decreases HR, SV and causes vasodilation  


   






 
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