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Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Bundles of neurons and heir coverings, which are found outside the CNS.   Nerves  
Collections of neuron cell bodies that are found outside the CNS.   Ganglia  
Nerves that originate from the spinal cord.   Spinal nerves  
Nerves that originate from the brain.   Cranial nerves  
Neurons that transmit action potentials from the sensory organs to the CNS.   Afferent neurons  
Neurons that transmit action potentials from the CNS to the effector organs.   Efferent neurons  
PNS neurons that transmit action potentials from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.   Somatic motor nervous system  
PNS neurons that transmit action potentials from the CNS to the smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.   Autonomic nervous system  
Division of the ANS that generally prepares the body for increased energy expenditure.   Sympathetic division  
Division of the ANS that regulates resting and nutrition-related functions such as digestion, defecation, and urination.   Parasympathetic division  
A neuron that conducts action potentials from one neuron to another neuron within the CNS.   Association neuron  
The ability to undergo an action potential in response to a stimulus.   Excitability  
A measure of the charge difference across the cell membrane.   Potential difference  
As you read this question, cells in your eyes are sending information to your brain which you bran uses to form an image of the words that you read. Is this information being sent along afferent or efferent nerves?   Afferent nerves.  
When you are digesting food, smooth muscles contract your stomach. Is this controlled by the afferent or efferent division of the PNS? What would be the most specific way to describe the nerves involved in this situation?   Efferent division. They are a part of the autonomic nervous system, and the parasympathetic division.  
An axon is covered by an oligodendrocyte. Is it a part of the CNS or PNS? Will it regenerate a new axon, if severed?   CNS. No.  
An axon is covered by several Schwann cells. If it is severed, will it definitely heal? Why or why not?   No. The axon may have shifted to far for the myelin sheath to guide it back into place.  
At one point on the axon, there is a high concentration of K+ outside the cell and a high concentration of Na+ inside the cell. Is the neuron at rest?   No. Depolarization.  
At one point on the axon, there is a high concentration of Na+ outside the cell and a high concentration of K+ inside the cell. Is the neuron at rest?   Can't tell.  
A stimulus creates a change in the potential difference between the inside and outside of the cell so that it is less negative, but no action potential is created. What is this called?   Subthreshold stimulus.  
What keeps an action potential on an axon from stimulating another action potential that will travel back towards the cell body?   The absolute refractory period.  
Why do myelinated axons carry action potentials faster than unmyelinated axons?   Myelinated axons allow saltitory transmission from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier.  
When you cut yourself, you feel an instant, sharp pain, followed a bit later by a dull ache. Why do you get these two different pains, and why do they come in that order?   They come from both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. The action potential travels down the myelinated neurons faster.  
If you press your finger lightly against an object, you feel a certain amount of pressure. Pressing harder against that same object causes you to feel more pressure. What is the difference between the action potentials in these two situations?   Frequency.  
The potential difference in a postsynaptic neuron changes from -85 mV to -95 mV at the point of a synapse. What has happened? What can you say about the relative amounts of K+ and Na+ outside the membrane?   Hyperpolarization. K+ amounts will increase outside the membrane, while the amount of Na+ stays the same.  
Twelve action potentials are traveling down an axon in a very short time period. They reach a synapse, and the postsynaptic neuron sends only two action potentials down its axon. Is this an excitatory synapse of an inhibitory synapse?   Excitatory. Many EPSP create one action potential.  


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