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NAU Integumentary System

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Protection, consists of skin, nails, hair, sweat and oil glands.   Integumentary System  
Three Layers of Skin   Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis or Subdermis  
Made up of stratified squamous epithelial cells, is avascular and innovated.   Epidermis  
Many nerve endings for touch.   Innovated  
Separates the epithelial tissue from the connective tissue.   Basement membrane  
Five layers of the epidermis bottom to the top.   Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum  
Basal Cell Layer, deepest layer.   Stratum Basale  
Many layers of spiny shaped cells with centrally located, large, oval nuclei and developing fibers of keratin; cells becoming flattened. Beneath the stratum granulosum.   Stratum Spinosum  
3-4 layers of flattened granular cells that contain shrunken fibers of keratin and shriveled nuclei. Beneath the stratum lucidum.   Stratum Granulosum  
Cells appear clear; nuclei, organelles and cell membranes are no longer visible. Between stratum corneum and stratum granulosum on soles and palms.   Stratum Lucidum  
Many layers of keratinized, dead epithelial cells that are flattened and nonnucleated. Outermost layer. Is waterproof.   Stratum Corneum  
Vascularized, contains nerve endings, reticulum foundational level. When scratched or lacerated will bleed. Contains glands, melanocytes. Tattoo ink is injected at this level.   Dermis  
Secretes melanin, which gives the skin color.   Melanocytes  
Finger like projections that stick up into the epidermis. Connects the epidermis to the dermis. Also creates fingerprints. Contains messiner's corpuscles.   Dermal papilla  
Creates skin pigment, freckles or age spots.   Melanin  
Receptors which are responsible for touch.   Meissner's Corpuscle  
Contains sudoriferous, sebaceous, sweat glands, hair follicles, pacinian corpuscles, arrector pili muscles and collagen fibers   Reticular Layer  
Fibers that loosen over time   Collagen Fibers  
Muscle that controls hair follicle. Provides protection and heat. Causes goosebumps   Arrector Pili Muscle  
Receptors which are responsible for pressure   Pacinian Corpuscle  
Insulating layers, contains adipose and is injection site.   Subcutaneous or Hypodermis Layer  
Skin accessories   Sebaceous glands, Sudoriferous glands, modified sudoriferous glands, hair and nails  
Skin Functions   Protections against infection, protection against dehydration, regulation of body temperature and collection of sensory information.  
Types of Skin Lesions   Surface Lesions, Deep Lesions and Burns  
Types of sudoriferous glands   Eccrine and apocrine glands  
Types of modified sudoriferous glands   Ceruminous, ciliary glands and mammary glands  
Consists of hair   Shaft, root and arrector pili muscle  
Makes up the nail   Nail root, nail bed, nail plate, luna and cuticle  
Types of surface lesions   Macule, papule, vesicle and pustule  
Types of deep lesions   Excoriation, laceration, ulcer and fissure  
Types of burns   First, Second and third degree  
Secretes sebum(oil); keeps skin and nails moisturized   Sebaceous glands  
Sweat glands, secretes odor and sweat   Sudoriferous glands  
Secretes products directly to the skin   Eccrine glands  
Secretes product and the apex of cell via the hair follicle   Apocrine glands  
Secretes earwax   Ceruminous glands  
Small glands along eyelash line and secrete moisture   Ciliary glands  
Modified sweat glands, secretes milk   Mammary glands  
Portion of the hair that sticks above the scalp   Shaft  
Underneath the scalp, hair with bulb   Hair root  
Growth underneath the skin   Nail root  
Overlies the surface of skin, tissue layer under nail plate   Nail bed  
Hard nail surface provides a protective covering   Nail plate  
White, half-moon section of the nail   Luna  
Protects the nail from bacteria   Cuticle  
What determines skin coloring   Genetics, Environmental factors and physiological factors  
Not raised, but a flat colored spot. Example: freckles   Macule  
Firm raised spots on the skin. Example: Warts, moles and skin tags   Papule  
Clear, raised, fluid filled lesion. Example: blisters   Vesicle  
Milky, fluid filled sac on the skin. Example: pimple   Pustule  
Scoring or scratching of the skin   Excoriation  
Deeper tearing of the skin, creates a ragged edge   Laceration  
Sore associated with disintegration or death of a tissue   Ulcer  
Crack or an even split into deep tissue. Example: bad athlete's foot   Fissure  
Number determines the layer   Burns  
Just involving the epidermis. Ex: Sunburn   First degree burns  
Involved the epidermis and the dermis, usually involves blisters   Second degree burns  
Destruction of the entire skin, leading to scarring   Third Degree Burns  
Forms when there is a loss of blood   Scar  
Events of wound healing   1. Injury-blood escapes from dermal tissue 2. Blood clot forms 3. Clot & tissue dry to form protective scab 4. Blood vessels send out alternative branches to revascularize the area 5. Fibroblasts reform new connective tissue 6. Scab falls off  


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