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Special considerations in athletes

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

heat stress   the inability of the body to maintain homeostasis because of high temperatures  
homeostasis   a state of balance within the body  
hyperthermia   a condition in which the body temperature rises above normal  
hypothalamus   the temperature-regulating center of the brain  
thermoregulation   the process by which body temperature is maintained  
heat index   a reference point indicating the risk associated with outdoor exercise; based on a combination of air temperature and relative humidity  
dehydration   occurs when the body loses too much fluid and the body isn't taking that much in (losing more than we're getting back)  
How much fluid does an average person lose a day?   3-6 Liters 1-2 Liters during vigorous exercise per hour  
sunburn   injury to the skin from the sun's rays (UV light)  
heat cramps   painful, involuntary muscles spasms caused by exposure to heat and dehydration  
heat syncope   fainting that occurs when the body attempts to cool itself by dilating the blood vessels  
heat exhaustion   the mildest form of generalized heat-related illness, characterized by multiple symptoms and often by dehydration  
heatstroke   a life-threatening form of heat illness that involves a rise in body temperature and altered mental status  
What body loses heat in how many ways?   5  
respiration   when you breathe out (exhale)  
evaporation   the loss of heat through perspiration (we sweat it then evaporated and we can cool down... liquid turns into a gas)  
conduction   the loss of heat through transfer to a cooler object (sitting on a cold chair)  
radiation   the loss of heat through the transfer of infrared rays into the cooler environment (football player takes off helmet)  
convection   heat loss through air currents passing by a warm surface (clothing)  
wind chill   the rate of heat loss from the human body resulting from the combined effect of cold temperature and wind  
hypothermia   a condition in which the body temperature drops below normal  
core body temperature   98.6 is the body temperature necessary to maintain homeostasis  
frostbite   damage to skin tissue and blood vessels due to prolonged exposure to temperatures below 32 degrees  
How many stages of frostbite?   3 stages  
acne mecahnica   a form of acne that results from heat, pressure, occlusion, and friction  
plantar warts   small, hard growths on the bottom of the foot  
Herpes Gladiatorum is seen in what sport most?   wrestling  
Herpes Gladiatorum   a type of herpes infection commonly seen in wrestlers  
tinea pedis   a fungal infection that thrives in warmth and dampness; often referred to as "athletes foot" or "ringworm"  
tinea cruris   a fungal infection found in the groin area; often referred to as "jock itch"  
diabetes   a disease in which the body doesn't produce insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin for the body to properly absorb glucose  
insulin   a hormone produced by the pancreas; necessary for glucose absorption  
pancreas   an organ, located near the stomach, that produces insulin  
beta cells   the cells responsible for making insulin  
insulin reaction   the body's response to excess insulin; the level of sugar in the blood decreases, causing brain cells to suffer  
diabetic coma   a condition in which there is too much sugar and too little insulin in the blood, resulting in body cells receiving inadequate nourishment  
seizure   a sudden attack or convulsion due to involuntary electrical activity in the brain  
epilepsy   a condition in which seizures occur regularly throughout the affected person's life  
simple partial seizure   a type of seizure in which a jerking motion begins in one part of the body; the victim remains awake and aware  
generalized tonic-clonic seizure   a type of seizure characterized by a sudden cry and fall, rigidity, jerking of muscles, shallow breathing, and loss of bladder and bowel control. This usually lasts for a couple of minutes  
local reaction   pain, swelling, redness, itching, and formation of a weal at the site of an insect bite or sting  
systemic reaction   a generalized reaction to an insect string or bite, characterized by flushing of the skin and an itchy rash; more serious symptoms such as wheezing, nausea, vomiting, palpation's, and faintness can also occur  
epinephrine   a medication that dilates the airway and constricts the blood vessels  
EpiPen   an auto-injecting device used to administer epinephrine to those with severe allergic reactions  
female athlete triad   a disorder that affects female athletes; characterized by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis  
amenorrhea   lack of a menstrual flow  
osteoporosis   bone loss  


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