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Ch. 25 Special...

Special considerations in athletes

heat stress the inability of the body to maintain homeostasis because of high temperatures
homeostasis a state of balance within the body
hyperthermia a condition in which the body temperature rises above normal
hypothalamus the temperature-regulating center of the brain
thermoregulation the process by which body temperature is maintained
heat index a reference point indicating the risk associated with outdoor exercise; based on a combination of air temperature and relative humidity
dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid and the body isn't taking that much in (losing more than we're getting back)
How much fluid does an average person lose a day? 3-6 Liters 1-2 Liters during vigorous exercise per hour
sunburn injury to the skin from the sun's rays (UV light)
heat cramps painful, involuntary muscles spasms caused by exposure to heat and dehydration
heat syncope fainting that occurs when the body attempts to cool itself by dilating the blood vessels
heat exhaustion the mildest form of generalized heat-related illness, characterized by multiple symptoms and often by dehydration
heatstroke a life-threatening form of heat illness that involves a rise in body temperature and altered mental status
What body loses heat in how many ways? 5
respiration when you breathe out (exhale)
evaporation the loss of heat through perspiration (we sweat it then evaporated and we can cool down... liquid turns into a gas)
conduction the loss of heat through transfer to a cooler object (sitting on a cold chair)
radiation the loss of heat through the transfer of infrared rays into the cooler environment (football player takes off helmet)
convection heat loss through air currents passing by a warm surface (clothing)
wind chill the rate of heat loss from the human body resulting from the combined effect of cold temperature and wind
hypothermia a condition in which the body temperature drops below normal
core body temperature 98.6 is the body temperature necessary to maintain homeostasis
frostbite damage to skin tissue and blood vessels due to prolonged exposure to temperatures below 32 degrees
How many stages of frostbite? 3 stages
acne mecahnica a form of acne that results from heat, pressure, occlusion, and friction
plantar warts small, hard growths on the bottom of the foot
Herpes Gladiatorum is seen in what sport most? wrestling
Herpes Gladiatorum a type of herpes infection commonly seen in wrestlers
tinea pedis a fungal infection that thrives in warmth and dampness; often referred to as "athletes foot" or "ringworm"
tinea cruris a fungal infection found in the groin area; often referred to as "jock itch"
diabetes a disease in which the body doesn't produce insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin for the body to properly absorb glucose
insulin a hormone produced by the pancreas; necessary for glucose absorption
pancreas an organ, located near the stomach, that produces insulin
beta cells the cells responsible for making insulin
insulin reaction the body's response to excess insulin; the level of sugar in the blood decreases, causing brain cells to suffer
diabetic coma a condition in which there is too much sugar and too little insulin in the blood, resulting in body cells receiving inadequate nourishment
seizure a sudden attack or convulsion due to involuntary electrical activity in the brain
epilepsy a condition in which seizures occur regularly throughout the affected person's life
simple partial seizure a type of seizure in which a jerking motion begins in one part of the body; the victim remains awake and aware
generalized tonic-clonic seizure a type of seizure characterized by a sudden cry and fall, rigidity, jerking of muscles, shallow breathing, and loss of bladder and bowel control. This usually lasts for a couple of minutes
local reaction pain, swelling, redness, itching, and formation of a weal at the site of an insect bite or sting
systemic reaction a generalized reaction to an insect string or bite, characterized by flushing of the skin and an itchy rash; more serious symptoms such as wheezing, nausea, vomiting, palpation's, and faintness can also occur
epinephrine a medication that dilates the airway and constricts the blood vessels
EpiPen an auto-injecting device used to administer epinephrine to those with severe allergic reactions
female athlete triad a disorder that affects female athletes; characterized by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
amenorrhea lack of a menstrual flow
osteoporosis bone loss
Created by: allissacole