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QuestionAnswer
what four muscles make up the quadriceps? rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastas lateralis, vastas medialis
what does the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastas lateralis, vastas medialis make up quadriceps
biceps femoris, semimbranosous, semiteninous make up the hamstrings
what muscles make up the hamstring biceps femoris, semimbranosous, semiteninous
eccentrically decelerates knee extension, hip flexion, and external rotation of the lower leg medial hamstrings
medial hamstrings eccentrically decelerates knee extension, hip flexion, and external rotation of the lower leg
eccentrically decelerates femoral (hip) adduction, internal rotation, and flexion gluteus medius (posterior fibers) and gluteus maximus
gluteus medius (posterior fibers) and gluteus maximus eccentrically declerates femoral (hip) adduction, internal rotation, and flexion
vastus medialis oblique eccentrically decelerates knee flexion
what muscle eccentrically decelerates knee flexion vastus medialis oblique eccentrically
what muscles isometrically stabilizes the LPHC and knee medial hamstrings, gluteus medius (posterior fibers) and gluteus meximus
medial hamstrings, gluteus medius (posterior fibers) and gluteus sometrically stabilizes LPHC and knee
The semimembranosus and the semitendinous are the medial hamstrings
medial hamstrings are what muscles The semimembranosus and the semitendinous
what muscle eccentrically decelerates dorsiflexion and knee extension gastrocenemius
gastrocenemius eccentrically decelerates dorsiflexion and knee extension
soleus eccentrically decelerates ankle dorsiflexion, internal rotation of lower leg and eversion of subtalar joint, and knee flexion
what muscle eccentrically decelerates ankle dorsiflexion, internal rotation of lower leg and eversion of subtalar joint, and knee flexion soleus
the hip flexor complex eccentrically decelerates hip extension and posterior tilt of pelvis
what muscle eccentrically decelerates hip extension and posterior tilt of pelvis the hip flexor complex
what muscle eccentrically decelerates femoral/hip internal rotation, adduction, and flexion piriformis
piriformis eccentrically decelerates femoral/hip internal rotation, adduction, and flexion
anterior tibialis eccentrically decelerates ankle planterflexion and eversion
what muscled eccentrically decelerates ankle planterflexion and eversion anterior tibialis
gluteus maximus eccentrically decelerates femoral (hip) adduction, internal rotation, and flexion, and anterior tilt of pelvis
what muscle eccentrically decelerates femoral (hip) adduction, internal rotation, and flexion, and anterior tilt of pelvis gluteus maximus
what muscle eccentrically decelerates spinal flexion and posterior tilt of pelvis erector spinae
erector spinae eccentrically decelerates spinal flexion and posterior tilt of pelvis
the hand is supinated when the palm is face up
when the palm is face up the hand is said to be supinated
the hand is pronated when the palm is face down
if the hand is face down it is said to be pronated
shoulders are retracted when they are back
shoulders are protracted when they are forward
bones of the shoulder region area humerous, scapula, clavicle
humerous, scapula, clavicle bones make up the shoulder area
bones of the LPHC are femur, pelvis, sacrum, and lumber spine
the femur, pelvis, sacrum, and lumber spine make up the LPHC complex
the tibia, femur, patella, and fibula make up the knee
the knee is made up of what bones tibia, femur, patella, and fibula make up the
latissimus dorsi eccentrically decelerates humeral flexion, abduction, external rotation, and posterior tilt of the pelvis
what eccentrically decelerates humeral flexion, abduction, external rotation, and posterior tilt of the pelvis latissimus dorsi
pectoralis major eccentrically decelerates humeral horizontal abduction, external rotation, and extension
eccentrically decelerates humeral horizontal abduction, external rotation, and extension pectoralis major
pectoralis minor eccentrically decelerates scapular retraction and elevation
what muscle eccentrically decelerates scapular retraction and elevation pectoralis minor
coracobrachialis eccentrically decelerates humeral abduction and extension
a deep muscle located in the upper arms beneath the triceps brachii muscles coracobrachialis
action of the corarocobrachialis in layman terms is to draw arm forward and inwards
probable over active for the impingement test teres major, latissimus dorsi, posterior capsule, pectoralis major/minor, levator scapulae, scalenes
probale under active muscles for the impingement test rhomids, middle/lower trapezius, rotator cuff, serratus anterior
pain in the posterior portion of the shoulder may indicate posterior capsule disfunction
pain in the anterior of the shoulder during the impingement test may indicate impingement syndrome (greater tubercle impinging on the acromion process)
pain at the top of the shoulder may indicate (the acrominoclavicular joint) may indicate AC joint dysfunction
compensation for the horizontal abduction test elbows consistently flex means over active biceps brachii (long head), underactive triceps brachii (long head and rotator cuff
compensation for the horizontal abduction test elbows consistently flex which muscles are over active biceps brachii
compensation for the horizontal abduction test elbows consistently flex which muscles are under active underactive triceps brachii (long head and rotator cuff
compensation for the horizontal abduction test shoulder protracts (humeral head moves forward and down) probable over active muscles pectoralis major/minor
protracts (humeral head moves forward and down) probable probable problem in what capsule hypomobile posterior capsule
protracts (humeral head moves forward and down) probable under active muscles rotator cuff, rhomboids and middle/lower trapezius
compensation for the rotation test: hands far from the wall probable over active muscles teres minor and infraspinatus
compensation for the rotation test: hands far from the wall probable under active muscles subscapularis, and teres major
compensation for the rotation test: hands far from the wall probable capsule problem hypomobile posterior capsule
compensation for the rotation test: shoulder protracts (humeral head moves forward and upward) probable capsule problem hypomobile posterior capsule
compensation for the rotation test: shoulder protracts (humeral head moves forward and upward) probable underactive muscles rotator cuff, rhombois, and mieddle/lowe trapezius
compensation for the rotation test: shoulders elevate probable over active muscles trapezius and levator scapule
compensation for the rotation test: shoulders elevate probable over under muscles rotator cuff, rhombois, and mieddle/lowe trapezius
compensation for the rotation test: mid and/or low back arches off the wall what is the meaning underactive rotator cuff, rhombiods, and middle/lower trapezius
compensation for the rotation test: hands far from wall what muscles are over active subscapularis, pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi
compensation for the rotation test: hands far from wall what muscles are under active teres minor, infraspinatus
compensation for the rotation test: mid and/or low back arches off the wall meaning underatcive rotator cuff, rhomboids, and mid/lw trapezius
compensations for the standing shoulder flexion test: elbows compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: consistently flex and abduct (bow out) probable under active muscles triceps brachii (long head) and rotator cuff
compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: consistently flex and abduct (bow out) probable over active muscles biceps brachii (long head), latissimus dorsi, teres major, and pectoralis major
compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: shoulders elevate probable over active muscles upper trapezius and levator scapulae
compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: shoulders elevate probable under active muscles rotator cuff, rhombois, and midl/lower trapezuis
compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: mid and/or low back arches off the wall probable under active muscles rotator cuff, rhombois, and midl/lower trapezuis
compensation for the standing shoulder flexion test: mid and/or low back arches off the wall probable over active muscles erector spinae, latissimus dorsi
the fixed attachment point of one end of the muscle that does not move during a muscle contraction (usually a bone) orgin
point at which a muscle attaches to the skin, a bone, or another muscle. The insertion attaches to the structure that will be moved by the contraction of the muscle. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone. insertion
The psoas major is a long fusiform muscle placed on the side of the thoracic region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis. The psoas major
a long, slender skeletal muscle which, when present, is located in front of the psoas major muscle. This muscle does not exist in about half the population. The psoas minor
is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. The iliacus
is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the buttocks. The gluteus maximus (or glutæus maximus)
is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. The gluteus medius (or glutæus medius), one of the three gluteal muscles,
is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius. The gluteus minimus (or glutæus minimus), the smallest of the three gluteal muscles,
point at which a muscle attaches to the skin, a bone, or another muscle. The insertion attaches to the structure that will be moved by the contraction of the muscle. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone. insertion
The psoas major is a long fusiform muscle placed on the side of the thoracic region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis. The psoas major
a long, slender skeletal muscle which, when present, is located in front of the psoas major muscle. This muscle does not exist in about half the population. The psoas minor
is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. The iliacus
is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the buttocks. The gluteus maximus (or glutæus maximus)
is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. The gluteus medius (or glutæus medius), one of the three gluteal muscles,
is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius. The gluteus minimus (or glutæus minimus), the smallest of the three gluteal muscles,
Adducts and flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe. Supports transverse arch ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS
it becomes a dorsiflexor If an extensor is found in the wrist or ankle joints,
Adducts and medially rotates hip ADDUCTOR LONGUS
Adductor portion: adducts and medially rotates hip. Hamstring portion: extends hip ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
Supinates forearm, flexes elbow, weakly flexes shoulder BICEPS BRACHII
Flexes and laterally rotates knee. Long head extends hip BICEPS FEMORIS
Flexes elbow BRACHIALIS
Flexes arm at elbow and brings forearm into midprone position BRACHIORADIALIS
ADDUCTOR BREVIS Adducts hip
Abducts arm, anterior fibers flex and medial rotate, posterior fibers extend and lateral rotate DELTOID
lateral third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula to deltoid tubercle DELTOID
Lateral flexion of spine ERECTOR SPINAE-SPINALIS
Extends and lateral flexes spine ERECTOR SPINAE-ILIOCOSTALIS
Lateral flexion of spine ERECTOR SPINAE-SPINALIS
Extends spine ERECTOR SPINAE-LONGISSIMUS
Extends and abducts hand at wrist EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS
Extends and abducts hand at wrist EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
xtends and adducts hand at wrist EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
Extends all joints of little finger EXTENSOR DIGITI MINIMI
Extends all joints of fingers EXTENSOR DIGITORUM
Extends toes when foot fully dorsiflexed EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS
Extends toes and extends foot at ankle EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS
Lateral flexion of spine ERECTOR SPINAE-SPINALIS
Extends great toe EXTENSOR HALLUCIS BREVIS
Extends big toe and foot. Inverts foot and tightens subtalar joints EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
Extends metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS
Supports abdominal wall, assists forced expiration, aids raising intraabdominal pressure and, with muscles of opposite side, abducts and rotates trunk EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE
Flexes and abducts wrist FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
Flexes and adducts wrist. Fixes pisiform during action of hypothenar muscles FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of little toe FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS
Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe. Supports medial longitudinal arch FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS
Plantar flexes foot. Flexes knee GASTROCNEMIUS
laterally rotates and stabilizes hip GEMELLUS INFERIOR
laterally rotates and stabilizes hip GEMELLUS SUPERIOR
Extends and laterally rotates hip. Maintains knee extended via iliotibial tract GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
ORIGIN Outer surface of ilium between posterior and middle gluteal lines INSERTION Posterolateral surface of greater trocanter of femur ACTION Abducts and medially rotates hip. Tilts pelvis on walking GLUTEUS MEDIUS
Abducts and medially rotates hip. Tilts pelvis on walking. GLUTEUS MINIMUS
Adducts hip. Flexes knee and medially rotates flexed knee GRACILIS
Flexes medially rotates hip ILIACUS
Laterally rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint INFRASPINATUS
Fix intercostal spaces during respiration. Aids forced inspiration by elevating ribs EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
ORIGIN Internal aspect of ribs above and below INSERTION Internal aspect of ribs above and below ACTION Fix intercostal spaces during respiration INNERMOST INTERCOSTALS
Extension of spine INTERSPINALIS
Extends, adducts and medially rotates arm. Costal attachment helps with deep inspiration and forced expiration LATISSIMUS DORSI
Raises medial border of scapula LEVATOR SCAPULAE
Extend toes at interphalangeal joints and flex metatarsal phalangeal joints LUMBRICALS
laterally rotates hip OBTURATOR EXTERNUS
Flexes, adducts and medially rotates hip PECTINEUS
Clavicular head:flexes and adducts arm. Sternal head: adducts and medially rotates arm . Accessory for inspiration PECTORALIS MAJOR
Elevates ribs if scapula fixed, protracts scapula (assists serratus anterior) PECTORALIS MINOR
Plantar* flexes and everts foot . Supports lateral longitudinal arch PERONEUS BREVIS
Plantar flexes and everts foot. Supports lateral longitudinal and transverse arches PERONEUS LONGUS
Extends and everts foot PERONEUS TERTIUS
laterally rotates and stabilizes hip PIRIFORMIS
Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee PLANTARIS
Flexes, adducts and medially rotates hip PECTINEUS
lavicular head:flexes and adducts arm. Sternal head: adducts and medially rotates arm . Accessory for inspiration PECTORALIS MAJOR
Unlocks extended knee by lateral rotation of femur on tibia. Pulls back lateral meniscus POPLITEUS
Pronates forearm and maintains ulna and radius opposed PRONATOR QUADRATUS
Pronates forearm and flexes elbow PRONATOR TERES
Flexes and laterally rotates hip PSOAS MAJOR
Weak flexor of trunk PSOAS MINOR
Reinforces lower rectus sheath PYRAMIDALIS
laterally rotates and stabilizes hip QUADRATUS FEMORIS
Flexes trunk, aids forced expiration and raise intra-abdominal pressure RECTUS ABDOMINIS
Extends leg at knee. Flexes thigh at hip RECTUS FEMORIS
Retracts scapula. Rotates scapula to rest position RHOMBOID MAJOR
Retracts scapula. Rotates lower scapula back to rest position RHOMBOID MINOR
Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh at hip. Flexes, medially rotates leg at knee SARTORIUS
Accessory to inspiration. lateral flexion of neck when 1st rib fixed SCALENUS
Flexes and medially rotates knee. Extends hip SEMIMEMBRANOSUS
Flexes and medially rotates knee. Extends hip SEMITENDINOSUS
Laterally rotates and protracts scapula SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Plantar flexes foot (aids venous return) SOLEUS
Depresses clavicle and steadies it during shoulder movements SUBCLAVIUS
Medially rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint SUBSCAPULARIS
Supinates forearm. Only acts alone when elbow extended SUPINATOR
Abducts arm and stabilizes shoulder joint SUPRASPINATUS
Maintains knee extended (assists gluteus maximus) and abducts hip TENSOR FASCIA LATA
Medially rotates and adducts arm. Stabilizes shoulder joint TERES MAJOR
laterally rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint TERES MINOR
Extends and inverts foot at ankle. Holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
Plantar flexes and inverts foot. Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot TIBIALIS POSTERIOR
Extends head and spine and lateral flexes spine TRANSVERSOSPINALIS-SEMISPINALES
Extends and inverts foot at ankle. Holds up medial longitudinal arch of foo TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
Supports abdominal wall, aids forced expiration and raising intra-abdominal pressure. Conjoint tendon supports posterior wall of inguinal canal TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
laterally rotates, elevates and retracts scapula. If scapula is fixed, extends and laterally flexes neck TRAPEZIUS
Extends elbow. Long head stabilizes shoulder joint. medial head retracts capsule of elbow joint on extension TRICEPS
Extends knee VASTUS INTERMEDIALIS
Extends knee. Stabilizes patella VASTUS MEDIALIS
Flexes and abducts big toe. Supports medial ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS
to extend your hip but they have many other functions such as leg abduction which is moving your leg away from your body to the side. primary function of the glutes is
the muscles which lift your knee up as if you were about to march. hip flexors
e moving of moving your legs together from away from your body. Adduction
is the motion of moving a leg to the side away from your body. Abduction
the femur (upper leg bone) and the tibia (larger of the 2 lower leg bones.) make up what joint The tibiofemoral joint is the articulation of the largest bone in your body,
this joint is the articulation of the patella (kneecap) and the femur. The patellofemoral joint
what is the degeneration of the back of the kneecap. Runners Knee is the name given for chondromalacia patellae
what is inflammation of the patellar ligament which is often referred to as a tendon. Jumper's knee is patellar tendoniti
. Separation of the two bones forming this joint is caused by damage to the ligaments connecting them. It is sometimes also referred to as a shoulder separation injury. The AC joint disfunction is short for the acromioclavicular joint
The joint is formed by the outer end of the clavicle (collar bone) and the acromion process of the scapular (shoulder blade). The acromion is a bony process which protudes forwards from the upper part of the scapular. acromioclavicular
This joint forms the highest part of the shoulder. acromioclavicular
is caused by the tendons of the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis muscles) becoming 'impinged' as they pass through a narrow bony space called the Subacromial space Impingement Syndrome, which is sometimes called Swimmer’s shoulder or Thrower’s shoulder,
is the medical term for Frozen Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis
is when the rotator cuff tendons become trapped in the shoulder joint. Repeated impingement can lead to inflammation and thickening, which in turn will result in more impingement and trapping of the inflammed tendons. Impingement syndrome
muscle runs along the top of the shoulder blade and inserts via the tendon at the top of the arm (humerus bone). The supraspinatus
This muscle is used to lift the arm up sideways and is also important in throwing sports. The supraspinatus
originates from the underside of the shoulder blade and inserts at the front of the upper arm (humerus). The subscapularis muscle
is a large powerful muscle at the front of the chest. pectoralis major muscle
It used to rotate the arm inwards, pull a horizontal arm across the body, pull the arm from above the head down and pull the arm from the side upwards. pectoralis major muscle
The muscle lifts the arm up sideways. The front part helps to lift the arm up forwards (flexion) and the back part helps to lift the arm up backwards (extension). deltoid
This muscle is used to lift the arm up sideways and is also important in throwing sports as it is the muscle that holds the arm in the shoulder joint when you release what you are throwing. supraspinatus
These muscles are put under a great deal of strain especially in throwing events and racket sports where your arm is above your head a lot. rotator cuff muscles
This is a strong ligament which connects the pelvis to the femur at the front of the joint. It resembles a Y in shape and stabilises the hip by limiting hyperextension Iliofemoral ligament:
The pubofemoral ligament attaches the part of the pelvis known as the pubis (most forward part, either side of the pubic symphesis) to the femur Pubofemoral ligament:
This is a ligament which reinforces the posterior aspect of the capsule, attaching to the ischium and between the two trochanters of the femur. Ischiofemoral ligament:
The is the primary hip flexor muscle which consists of 3 parts. Iliopsoas:
Together they attach superiorly to the lower part of the spine and the inside of the ilium (flat upper part of the pelvis). They then cross the hip joint and insert to the lesser trochanter of the femur. Iliopsoas:
They all attach superiorly to the ischial tuberosity (lowest part of the pelvis, sometimes referred to as the sitting bone!) and cause hip extension. hamstrings
They all attach superiorly to the pubis and travel down the inside of the thigh. adductor muscles
hen the lateral (outer) structures of the knee including the vastus lateralis, Iliotibial Band and lateral retinaculum are tight and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscle on the inside of the knee is weak. patella mal-tracking.
This results in the patella moving too far laterally (to the outside) as the tight lateral structures pull it across and the medial (inner) muscles are not strong enough to control this force. patella mal-tracking.
these muscles is to bend (flex) the knee and to move the thigh backwards at the hip (extend the hip). hamstrings
Runners who overpronate (feet rolling in or flattening) are particularly at risk as the biomechanics of the foot pronating causes additional stretching of the Plantar fasciitis,plantar fascia.
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quadratus lumborum on one side of the body works with the opposing adductors, tensor fascia latae and glute medius to stabilize the pelvis and help control the femur as you run lateral subsystem
this subsystem plays an important role in stabilizing the body in the frontal plane during activities (especially single-leg work) involving the lower body (2). lateral subsystem
this system is a crucial component of the powerful posterior chain deep longitudinal subsystem
this subsystem’s primary function is to allow forces generated in the lower body to be carried up to the upper body deep longitudinal subsystem
when the right arm is extending during gait, so is the left leg we’re referring to the back and across nature of this muscular interaction. posterior oblique subsystem
are associated with the movement of the trunk and limbs and act as a equalizer for external loads places on the body. The Global Unit Muscular Subsystem
is also known as the “inner unit” or “joint support system”. This system of muscles is involved in stabilizing or supporting joint movement. The local muscular system
is hip flexion, which means bringing the thigh up towards the abdomen. The hip flexors are also active when the abdomen is being moved towards the thighs The function of the Iliopsoas
It is one of the four Quadriceps muscles and the only one that crosses the hip joint. This crossing of the hip joint enables it to operate as a hip flexor as well as a knee extensor (straightening the knee). Rectus Femoris.
This will reduce pelvic tilt and decrease lower back pain. stretch the hip flexors and strengthen the Abdominal muscles.
These muscles all work together to keep tension on the humerus, locking it into the shoulder joint. Rotator Cuff:
the Teres Minor, the Infraspinatus, the Supraspinatus and the Subscapularismake up the There are four muscles in the Rotator Cuff:
attach to the humerus near the shoulder joint and originate on the breastbone in the center of the chest. Pectoralis Major
moves the shoulder area forward. This can be seen by shrugging your shoulder forward. Pectoralis Minor
The three heads of the Deltoid are the Anterior, Lateral, and Posterior.
moves the arm away from the body. deltoids
this deltoid head raises arm away to the front, anterior deltoid
this deltoid head moves arm up up and away to the side and the Lateral deltoid
this deltoid head moves arm up and away to the rear. Posterior
Created by: dinglespp