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NASM-CPT Chapter 4

Human Movement Science

Biomechanics A study that uses principles of physics to quantitively study how forces interact within a living body
Superior Positioned above a point of reference
Proximal Positioned below a point of reference
Distal Positioned nearest the center of the body, or pont of reference
Anterior On the front of the body
Posterior (or dorsal) On the back of the body
Medial Positioned near the middle of the body
Lateral Toward the outside of the body
Contralateral Positioned on the opposite side of the body
Ipsillateral Positioned on the same side of the body
Sagittal plane An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right
Flexion The bending of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to decreas
Extension The straightening of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to increase.
Frontal plane An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves
Abductioin Movement of a body part away from the middle of the body
Adduction Movement of a body part toward the middle of the body
Transverse plane An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves
Internal rotation Rotation of a jointtoward the middle of the body
External rotation Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
Eccentric contraction The lengthening of a muscle
Isometric contraction A muscle maintaining a certain length
Concentric contraction The shortening of a muscle
Force An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object
Length-tension relationship The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force
Force-couple Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
Rotary motion Movement of the bones around the joints
Torque A force that produces rotation
Motor behavior The process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli
Motor control The study of posture and movements and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experiences
Synergies Groups of muscles thay are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
ProprIoception The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movrements
Sensorimotor integration The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement.
Motor learning Repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements
Feedback The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning
Internal feedback The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
External feedback Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment
Created by: annalisa7