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ABO

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The most immunogenic of all the blood group antigens   ABO blood group antigens  
Describe the physiological functions of ABO blood group antigens   Unknown  
This ABO phenotype has been linked with stomach ulcers   Group O  
Individuals with this blood type tend to have lower levels of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF)   O  
This ABO phenotype has been linked with gastric cancer   more common in group A individuals  
most common ABO blood type in most populations   O  
Antibody isotype for ABO antibodies   For type O = IgG; for A and B= IgM  
Describe Antibody reactivity for ABO blood group antibodies   Capable of hemolysis Anti-A and anti-B bind to RBCs and activate the complement cascade, which lyses the RBCs while they are still in the circulation (intravascular hemolysis).  
Describe Transfusion reaction involving ABO antibodies   Typically causes an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction  
Describe severity of cases of Hemolytic disease of the newborn involving ABO system   No or mild disease  
He discovered the first blood group system, ABO, and earned a Nobel Prize.   Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner  
Describe the differences between A1 and A2 RBC phenotypes   A1 red cells express about 5 times more A antigen than A2 red cells  
How/why do ABO antibodies occur?   ABO antibody production is stimulated when the immune system encounters the "missing" ABO blood group antigens in foods or in micro-organisms.  
Immunodominant sugar for blood group A   N-acetylgalactosamine  
Immunodominant sugar for blood group B   D-galactose  
Are ABO antigens expressed on other tissues?   expressed on a wide variety of human tissues and are present on most epithelial and endothelial cells.  
In individuals who are "secretors", a soluble form of the ABO blood group antigens is found in saliva and in all bodily fluids except for this.   CSF  
ABO antibodies are of major clinical significance for two reasons:   they are naturally occurring and are found universally, and, they are highly reactive.  
ABO related Hemolytic disease of the newborn tends to occur almost exclusively in moms with this blood type? Why?   Group O mothers with A or B baby because anti-A and anti-B formed in group O individuals tend to be of the IgG type (can cross placenta), whereas the anti-A and anti-B found in the serum of group B and A moms, is IgM  
For A/B antigen synthesis to occur, a precursor called the_____ antigen must be present   H(FUT1)  
In saliva and other bodily secretions, the enzyme that synthesizes the H antigen is encoded by the __locus (FUT2).   Se  
The ABO locus is located on chromosome   The ABO locus is located on chromosome 9 at 9q34.1-q34.2.  


   


 
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