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ABO

QuestionAnswer
The most immunogenic of all the blood group antigens ABO blood group antigens
Describe the physiological functions of ABO blood group antigens Unknown
This ABO phenotype has been linked with stomach ulcers Group O
Individuals with this blood type tend to have lower levels of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF) O
This ABO phenotype has been linked with gastric cancer more common in group A individuals
most common phenotype in most populations O
Antibody type for ABO antibodies For type O = IgG; for A and B= IgM
Describe Antibody reactivity for ABO blood group antibodies Capable of hemolysis Anti-A and anti-B bind to RBCs and activate the complement cascade, which lyses the RBCs while they are still in the circulation (intravascular hemolysis).
Describe Transfusion reaction involving ABO antibodies Typically causes an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction Most deaths caused by blood transfusion are the result of transfusing ABO-incompatible blood.
Describe severity of cases of Hemolytic disease of the newborn involving ABO system No or mild disease
He discovered the first blood group system, ABO, and earned a Nobel Prize. Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner
Describe the differences between A1 and A2 RBC phenotypes A1 red cells express about 5 times more A antigen than A2 red cells
How/why do ABO antibodies occur? ABO antibody production is stimulated when the immune system encounters the "missing" ABO blood group antigens in foods or in micro-organisms.
Immunodominant sugar for blood group A The A allele encodes a glycosyltransferase that produces the A antigen (N-acetylgalactosamine is its immunodominant sugar)
Immunodominant sugar for blood group B The B allele encodes a glycosyltransferase that creates the B antigen (D-galactose is its immunodominant sugar).
Are ABO antigens expressed on other tissues? expressed on a wide variety of human tissues and are present on most epithelial and endothelial cells.
How many ABO antigens are present on each RBC? Each human RBC expresses about 2 million ABO blood group antigens.
In individuals who are "secretors", a soluble form of the ABO blood group antigens is found in saliva and in all bodily fluids except for this. CSF
describe acquired B phenotype Patients can "acquire" the B antigen during a necrotizing infection during which bacteria release an enzyme into the circulation that converts the A1 antigen into a B-like antigen
ABO antibodies are of major clinical significance for two reasons: they are naturally occurring and are found universally, and, they are highly reactive.
ABO related Hemolytic disease of the newborn tends to occur almost exclusively in moms with this blood type? Why? Group O mothers with A or B baby because anti-A and anti-B formed in group O individuals tend to be of the IgG type (can cross placenta), whereas the anti-A and anti-B found in the serum of group B and A moms, is IgM
For A/B antigen synthesis to occur, a precursor called the_ antigen must be present H(FUT1)
In saliva and other bodily secretions, the enzyme that synthesizes the H antigen is encoded by the __locus (FUT2). Se
The ABO locus is located on chromosome The ABO locus is located on chromosome 9 at 9q34.1-q34.2.
Created by: jfshikle