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chapter 9-11 test

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Question
Answer
1st christian of record, martyered for his faith, stoned to death   Stephan  
son of Zebedee, 1st apostle to meet a martyrs death, captured during reign of Herod Agrippa (beheaded)   James  
preached in Asia, killed by Idol worshiping priest   philip  
tax collector before christ's call; arrested in Ethiopia,nailed to ground and beheaded   Matthew  
head of Church in Jerusalem, arrested under ananious, brought to top of temple, pushed off, broke legs, prayed for persecutors, clubbed his head   james the Less  
replacement for Judas, sent to Ethiopia to preach, beheaded   Matthias  
led wife of roman gov. to Lord, crucified on x shaped cross and preached to passer-bys for 3 days,   Andrew  
arrested during 8 yrs of Nero, passover, hooked and dragged through city   Mark  
crucified upside down   peter  
beheaded during time of nero   Paul  
Killed in persia, crucified   Jude  
arrested by armenian king, beaten with rods, crucified upside down, filleted alive, beheaded withax   Bartholomew  
arrested in india, tortured with red hot plates, cast in furnace but didn't burn, speared through in mouth of furnace   Thomas (doubting)  
died in greece, 84 yrs old, hanged from olive tree   Luke  
exiled on Isle of Patmos, died of natural causes, poisoned, caldron of boiling oil,wrote Revelation   John  
canon of scripture completed, all 27 books of NT had been written   AD 100  
Said "blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church"   Tertullian  
1st Persecution (burns rome, kills peter and paul)   Nero  
2nd Persecution (saw himself as God, exiled john to patmos)   Domitian  
vast galleries beneath city of Rome that hid many Christians   catacombs  
3rd persecution   Trajan  
Under him profession of Christianity became a capital crime   Trajan  
martyrs under Trajan: -Now I can begin to be a disciple -Roman soldier wouldn't partake in pagan soldier rituals -burned at stake, wouldn't burn so stabbed to death, blood put out fire   Ignatius Eustachius Plycarp  
4th persecution   Marcus Aurelius  
Martyrs under Marcus Aurelius: -scourged and beheaded -tortured, " I am a christian, among us no evil is done.   Justin Martyer Blandina  
5th Persecution   Septimius Severus  
2 martyrs under Septimius Severus   Irenaeus Perpetua and Felicitas  
6th persecution (2yrs severe)   Maximinus Thrax  
7th Persecution   Decius  
required all inhabitants of empire to sacrifice to ancient gods and obtain certificates from roman gov. verifying that they had made the required sacrifice   Decius  
martyrs under Decius: -boyfriend saves her, gets captured, she turns herself in and they both die -stretched in stack, christian philosopher from alexandria, mutilated and died later   Theodora Origen  
8th persecution (captured later by Persian and used as footstool) martyr cyprian   Valerian  
9th persecution   Aurelian  
10th Persecution (worst)   Diocletion and co emperor Maximian  
outlawed Christianity,killed Thebian Legion in Gaul after they wouldn't kill Christians   Diocletion  
issued the ? AD 313 that extended legal protection and recognition to Christians throughout empire   Constantine Edit of Milan  
ante nicene fathers   ignatius, polycarp, papias  
Phil 4:3 commended by Apostle Paul   clement of Rome  
those who attempted to reasonably defend Christianity against pagan defamation   apologists  
greatest of apologists, presented to Antonius Pius, one other one   Justin Martyr, Aristides  
wrote ? - the 1st harmony of the Gospels, proving superiority of Christianity over greek philosophy   Tatian Address to the Greeks  
wrote "Against All Heresies" to go against Gnosticism   Irenaeus  
contended against monarchianism (denied doc. of trinity) 1st to use term "trinity"   Tertullian  
wrote 1st book of systematic theology in early church   Origen  
Arian controversy (denied deity of Christ) Athanasian creed-addresses that Christ is God   Athanasius  
completed common bible in peoples own tongue, latin vulgate   Jerome  
greatest of church fathers, wrote Confessions (biography, and ? - the 1st systematic Christian philosophy of history   Augustine of hippo, City of God  
Means I believe in Latin   Creed  
under him, Christianity became the only legal faith, state religion of Roman Empire   Theodosius I  
Importance of the Byzantine Empire   1. time capsule 2. stopped Islam 3. Fell from neglect  
divided Roman empire   Diocletian  
converts to christian and movies capital to new rome   Constantine  
time, permanent division under Theodosius   395  
takes empire to initial glory   Justinian 1  
new capital (constantinouple) moved rome to byzantius by ? and named it new rome   Constantine  
1st great leader of the byzantine Empire, restores Roman glory to empire greatest achievement ?   Justinian Roman Law -Justinian code  
most magnificent church building of early middle ages and greatest achievement of byzantine architecture   Cathedral of Hagia Sophia  
Justinian's gifted general   Belisarius  
iconoclastic emperor(Iconoclastic controversy-image destroyer). beats back Arabs(Islam) great general responsible for saving Constantinople during the second siege   Leo III  
a byzantine invention similar to a flamethrower   greek fire  
abstract, simplified image or picture of Christ, mary or saint   Icon  
led a restoration of Byzantium's power, pushed back muslims to asia minor   Basil I  
conquered the Bulgar(slayer), Byzantine empire was at its greatest height since Justinian the great   Basil II  
1071- won major victory over byzantines at battle of manzikert   Seljuk Turks  
1204 Venetian's sack Constantinople   Fourth Crusade  
the conqueror who defeats Constantinople, Fall of the Byzantine Empire, May 29, 1453   Mohammed II  
Last emperor of Byzantine   Constantine XI  
Contributions of Byzantines   Roman Law, Paintings and Mosaics, greek orthodox church  
Apostle to slavs, made the ?   Cyril, Cyrillic Alphabet  
greatest contrib. preservation of the Greek new Test.   Byzantine text  
declared that every church must agree with the church of Rome   Irenaeus  
Irenaeus and other church leaders try to justify ground mastery of bishops over churches with this idea; Christ appoints apostles, apostles appoint biships successors appoint successors   Apostolic succession  
Peter is 1st pope, founded church of Rome, (pope-latin for papa or father)   Petrine theory  
Valentinian 3rd officially recognized him as supreme over the Roman Church, turned back Attila the Hun   Leo I  
Issued doctrine of ? -separating civil and ecclesiastical authority and making the pope an the bishops supreme over all human rulers relating to God.   Pope Gelasius I two swords  
1st medieval pope   Gregory I  
The idea that bread and wine is the real body of Christ in the hands of the priest   transubstantiation  
means means of grace   sacraments  
name for a roman church service   mass  
withdrawing from society to live in solitude   monasticism  
earliest monks living in wilderness in complete solitude   hermits  
religious communities isolated form the rest of society   Monasteries  
lived like other monks except that they preached and did missionary work outside the monasteries, 2 orders- the Franciscans and Dominicans   Friers  
1st great Frankish military and political, 498, loses battle of Tolbiac and professed his conversion to Christianity   Clovis  
Do nothing kings, Clovis's descendents of rulers   Merovingian  
chief official of the royal household, had the real ruling power   mayor of the palace  
" the hammer" most famous mayor the palace, halted muslim (moors) invasion of Europe at 732 Battle of Tours, victories prevented weastern europe from being swallowed up in a muslim empire   Charles Martel  
king of franks, starting Carolingian line of Frankish kings, Church went from legitimizing ruler to choosing one, fights Lombards, donation of papal states - giving land to church   Pepin the Short  
defeats saxons, christmas day AD 800- became Charles Augustus, emperor of the Romans (church is now making emperors)   Charlemagne  
means the kings envoys, judges   Missi dominici  
became basis for modern handwriting styles as well as the roman typeface   Carolingian miniscule  
after the death of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne's son, 843 - ? sets the stage for modern Europe (France and Germany (divided empire into parts   Treaty of verdun  
begins the saxon line of kings   henry the Fowler  
1st holy roman emperor (lay investure), crowned in 962   Otto the Great  
emperors and kings to choose biships and other church officials   lay investure  
started Salian line of kings   Henry IV  
Hohenstaufen line, coined title holy roman empire   Frederic Barbarossa I  
single most powerful institution in western Europe   papacy  
monk adviser of Nicholas II, prohibited custom of lay investiture   Gregory 7th (monk name - Hildebrand)  
under him papacy allowed the zenith of its power of influence, Fourth Lateran council (transubstantiation)Holy office of Inquisition- Power to inquire and judge matters of heresy   Innocent III  


   


 
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