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Chapter 10 - Database Management

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Definition
Term
Restrictions that establish who can enter new data, change existing data, delete unwanted data, and view data in a database.   access privileges  
Information that is available when the decision maker needs it.   accessible information  
Information that is error free.   accurate information  
Copy of a database file after changes were made.   after image  
Validity check that ensures users enter only alphabetic data in a field.   alphabetic check  
Text that can include letters, numbers, or special characters.   alphanumeric  
Each data element in an object. Also called a property.   attribute  
Application that supports a front-end program.   back end  
Duplicate or copy of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.   backup  
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to undo any changes made to a database during a certain period, such as an hour. See also rollback.   backward recovery  
Copy of a database file before changes were made.   before image  
Binary large object.   BLOB  
Consisting of Yes or No, or True or False, values.   Boolean  
Program that manages the sending and receiving of data between the front end and the database server.   CGI (Common Gateway Interface) script  
A number, letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol that is represented by a single byte in the ASCII and EBCDIC coding schemes.   character  
Validity check consisting of a number(s) or character(s) that is appended to or inserted in a primary key value.   check digit  
Web databases where users store and share photos, videos, recordings, and other personal media with other registered users.   collaborative databases  
Term used by users of relational databases for field.   column  
Validity check that verifies that a required field contains data.   completeness check  
Primary key that consists of multiple fields.   composite key  
Database that stores data about engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.   computer-aided design (CAD) database  
Validity check that tests the data in two or more associated field to ensure that the relationship is logical and their data is in the correct format.   consistency check  
Backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a change is made.   continuous backup  
Information that gives more value than it costs to produce.   cost-effective information  
Collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.   data  
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also repository.   data dictionary  
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See also form.   data entry form  
Collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard disk, CD, or DVD.   data file  
The quality of data that is entered in a database.   data integrity  
Smaller version of a data warehouse that contains a database that helps a specific group or department make decisions.   data mart  
Process used with data warehouses to find patterns and relationships among data.   data mining  
Rules and standards that define how a database organizes data.   data model  
Person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data, including proper placement of fields, defining the relationships among data, and identifying users’ access privileges. See also database analyst (DA).   data modeler  
Specifies the kind of data a field in a database can contain and how the field can be used.   data type  
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions.   data warehouse  
Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access retrieval, and use of that data.   database  
Person who creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of a database, monitors the performance of a database, and checks backup and recovery procedures.   database administrator (DBA)  
Person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data, including proper placement of fields, defining the relationships among data, and identifying users’ access privileges. See also data modeler.   database analyst (DA)  
System used to store and manage data in which many programs and users share the data in a database.   database approach  
Program that allows user to create a computerized database; add, change, and delete data in the database, sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the data in the database. See also database software.   database management system (DBMS)  
Computer that stores and provides access to a database.   database server  
Program that allows user to create a computerized database; add, change, and delete data in the database, sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the data in the database. See also database management system (DBMS).   database software  
Value that a DBMS initially displays in a field.   default value  
Database in which the data exists in many separate locations throughout a network or the Internet.   distributed database  
Electronic form used as a means to secure data while it is transported across a network.   e-form  
A form that sends entered data across a network or the Internet.   electronic form  
A combination of one or more related characters or bytes, a field is the smallest unit of data a user accesses.   field  
Name that uniquely identifies each field in a database.   field name  
Defines the maximum number of characters a field can contain.   field size  
Procedures that keep data current.   file maintenance  
System used to store and manage data in which each department or area within an organization has its own set of files.   file processing system  
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See also data entry form.   form  
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to reenter changes made to a database since the last save or backup. See also rollforward.   forward recovery  
Program that generally has a more user-friendly interface than a DBMS.   front end  
Computing phrase that points out the accuracy of a computer’s output depends on the accuracy of the input.   garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)  
Geographic information system. Type of database that stores maps and other geographic data.   GIS  
Database that stores documents such as schedules, calendars, manuals, memos, and reports.   groupware database  
The multiple dimensions in which data is stored in a multidimensional database.   hypercube  
Database that contains text, graphics, video, and sound.   hypermedia database  
Database that contains text links to other types of documents.   hypertext database  
Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to people.   information  
Listing of activities that change the contents of a database.   log  
Detailed data in a data dictionary about the data in a database.   metadata  
Database that stores data in dimensions.   multidimensional database  
Database that stores images, audio clips, and/or video clips.   multimedia database  
Process designed to ensure the data within the relations (tables) in a database contains the least amount of duplication.   normalization  
Validity check that ensures users enter only numeric data in a field   numeric check  
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.   object  
Query language used with object-oriented and object-relational databases to manipulate and retrieve data. See also OQL.   object query language (OQL)  
Database that stores data in objects.   object-oriented database (OODB)  
Databases that combine features of the relational and object-oriented data models.   object-relational databases  
Information that is arranged to suit the needs and requirements of the decision maker.   organized information  
Field in a database that uniquely identifies each record in a file.   primary key  
Policy adopted by some organizations, where users' access privileges are limited to the lowest level necessary to perform required tasks.   principle of least privilege  
Request for specific data from a database.   query  
DBMS feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data.   query by example (QBE)  
Language used with databases that consists of simple, English-like statements that allows users to specify the data to display, print, or store.   query language  
Validity check that determines whether a number is within a specified range.   range check  
Group of related fields in a database.   record  
DBMS feature that uses logs and/or backups to restore a database when it becomes damaged or destroyed.   recovery utility  
Term used by developers of relational databases for file.   relation  
Database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns, with each row having a primary key and each column having a unique name.   relational database  
Link within the data in a database.   relationship  
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report. See also report writer.   report generator  
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report. See also report generator.   report writer  
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also data dictionary.   repository  
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to undo any changes made to a database during a certain period, such as an hour. See also backward recovery.   rollback  
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to reenter changes made to the database since the last save or backup. See also forward recovery.   rollforward  
Term used by users of relational databases for record.   row  
Query language used with databases that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.   Structured Query Language (SQL)  
Term used by users of relational databases for file.   table  
Information that has an age suited to its use.   timely information  
Term used by developers of relational databases for record.   tuple  
Information that has meaning to the person who receives it.   useful information  
Process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct.   validation  
Check that analyzes entered data to help ensure that it is correct. See also validity check.   validation rules  
Check that analyzes entered data to help ensure that it is correct. See also validation rules.   validity check  
Information that can be proven as correct or incorrect.   verifiable information  


   






 
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