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Anatomy Exam Block 1 Spring 2013

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Where does the rectum begin   3rd sacral vertebrae  
Describe the tilting of the uterus   90 degrees anterior is the norm (antiflexion)  
Describe the course of the ureter in the female   It crosses inferior to the uterine artery and superior to the vaginal artery  
What makes up the broad ligament   2 layers of peritoneum that course from the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall  
What runs inside of the broad ligament   Uterine (fallopian) tube  
What are the 3 parts of the broad ligament   Mesosalphinx, mesovarium, and mesometrium  
What forms the pectinate line of the anal canal   Anal columns, anal valves, anal sinuses  
What branch does the superior rectal artery arise from   Inferior mesenteric artery  
At what level does the IMA branch from the aorta   L3  
At what level does the ovarian/testicular artery branch from the aorta   L2  
What does the ovarian artery anastomose with   Uterine artery which comes off the internal iliac artery (branch of the common iliac artery  
At what level does the aorta bifurcate   L4  
At what level does the IVC bifurcate   L5  
What artery runs through the suspensory ligament   Ovarian artery  
What are the branches off the pudendal artery   Inferior rectal, perineal, bulb, urethra, deep, dorsal  
Internal hemorrhoids may be a sign of   Portal hypertension (due to superior rectal veins)  
External hemorrhoids are associate with what veins   Inferior rectal veins (as opposed to superior which can cause internal hemorroids)  
What are the branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery   Iliolumbar, lateral sacral, superior gluteal (I.L.S)  
Sciatic nerve is formed by the anterior rami of which spinal nerves   L4 - S3  
The pudendal nerve is formed by contributions from the anterior rami of which spinal nerves   S2-S4  
Where does the pudendal nerve exit the pelvis   Passes inferior to the piriformis muscle  
What kind of fibers do the pelvic splanchnics carry   Preganglionic parasympathetic  
The pelvic splanchnic nerves arise from which anterior rami   Spinal nerves S2-S4  
The pelvic diaphragm is made up of which muscles   Levator ani and coccygeus muscles (+ the fascia covering these muscles)  
What are the three muscles of the levator ani   Puborectalis, pubococcygeus, and iliococcygeus  
Talk about the tendinous arch   The tendinous arch is a thickening of the obturator internus fascia to which the iliococcygeus muscle (part of levator ani) attaches  
Where do the obturator internus and externus attach to   Greater trochanter of the femur (the piriformis muscle attaches here as well)  
What motion do the obturator muscles as well as the piriformis aid in   Lateral rotation of the thigh  
To measure the OBSTETRIC conjugate measure from the sacral promontory to the   Posterior border of the pubic symphysis  
To measure the DIAGONAL conjugate measure from the __________ to the lower border of the pubic symphysis   Sacral promontory  
What regions of the pelvic inlet make up the linea terminalis   Pubic crest, pecten pubis, arcuate line  
The subpubic arch in the female is how many degrees   80-85 degrees (which is larger than the male which is 50-60 degrees)  
The pelvic inlet in a male is what shape   <3  
What divides the greater and lesser sciatic foramina   Sacrospinous ligament (sacrum to the ischial spine)  
What other ligament closes the lesser sciatic foramen   Sacrotuberous ligament (sacrum to ischial tuberosity)  
Is the sacroiliac joint a synovial joint   YES (but it can become fibrous or ossified with age)  
Three parts of the pelvic bone   Ilium, ischium, pubic bone  
Bones that make the pelvis   Two pelvic bones and the sacrum  
What passes through the gap between the transverse perineal ligament and the pubic symphysis   Deep dorsal vein of the penis/clitoris  
What is the corona of the penis   Prominent margin of the glans  
Is corpora cavernosa erectile tissue   YES  
What runs through the corpus songiosum of the penis   Spongy urethra  
Name the superficial penile fascia   Dartos fascia  
Name the deep penile fascia   Buck's fascia  
What kind of muscle is the bulbospongiosus   Skeletal muscle (contraction helps expel urine or semen from urethra, also aids in erection)  
What covers the crura of the penis or clitoris   Ischiocavernosus (skeletal muscle)  
Attachments of the superficial transverse perineal muscles   From ischial tuberosity and insert into the perineal body  
What male part is homologous to the labia majora   Male scrotum  
Name something that ends at the labia majora   The round ligament of the uterus  
The clitoris is homologous to the   Penis  
In the FEMALE Colle's fascia is continuous with   Scarpa's fascia  
In the MALE Colle's fascia is continuous with   Scarpa's fascia  
What about when Colle's fascia goes to the penis and scrotum, then what do you call it   Dartos fascia  
The internal pudendal artery arises from the   Anterior division of the internal iliac artery  
What sciatic foramen does the pudendal artery pass through   BOTH. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen and then passes through the lesser sciatic foramen in the gluteal region  
Name the two branches of the external pudendal artery   Superficial and deep external pudendal arteries (which are branches off the femoral artery)  
The internal pudendal veins drains into the   Internal iliac veins  
Superficial structures of the urogenital triangle have lymphatic drainage to   Superficial inguinal lymph nodes  
Lymphatics from structures in the deep perineal space drain to   Internal iliac nodes  
Does the pudendal nerve supply somatic innervation to the perineum   YES (if you know nothing else for the exam, know this)  
For a pudendal nerve block where would you inject the anesthetic   Near the ischial spine  
Where does the rectum end   Anorectal flexure (Anal canal begins here)  
The rectum is separated from the bladder by the   Rectovesical pouch  
What pouch is between the rectum and uterus in the female   Rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)  
What is the anocutaneous line   Inferior boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters (also called the intersphincter groove)  
Arterial supply to the rectum and anal canal superior to the pectinate line   Superior rectal arteries (from IMA)  
Arterial supply to the anal canal inferior to the pectinate line   Inferior rectal arteries (off the internal pudendal arteries)  
In the female what lies posterior to the vagina   Rectum  
What is the fornix   Part of the superior vagina that surrounds the cervix  
Name the layers of the uterus   Myometrium, perimetrium, endometrium  
If the cervix has a more posterior angling we call this   Retroversion  
Name the pouch between the uterus and urinary bladder   Vesicouterine pouch  
Where do the pain fibers for the cervix and upper vagina originate   S2-S4 (they pass through pelvic splanchnics and the inferior hypogastric plexus to reach the vagina)  
What type of fibers are found in the inferior hypogastric plexus   Pre- and post- sympathetic and parasympathetic, and sensory/afferent fibers  
Is the ureter retroperitoneal   YES  
At what locations is the ureter most constricted   Origin from renal pelvis, where is crosses the pelvic brim, passes through the bladder  
Pain from the abdominal part of the ureter is relayed to which spinal cord segments   T11-L2 (spasms can occur due to ureteral stones)  
Is the apex of the bladder anterior or posterior   Anterior  
List the branches of the posterior branch of the internal iliac artery   Iliolumbar, lateral sacral, superior gluteal  
Pudendal nerve contains fibers from what ventral rami   S2-S4  
Pelvic splanchnic nerves contain what kind of fibers   Preganglionic parasympathetic  


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