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terms & definitions from Ch 4 - Tissues

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-blast   cells that are actively producing the surrounding matrix  
-cyte   related to or having to do with cells  
Amitotic   when neurons act as communicating links, they lose ability to divide  
anucleate   a cell without a nucleus  
apical surface   upper free surface exposed to body surface, or cavity of internal organ  
Avascular   Contains no blood vessels  
Axons   Carries impulses away and is the conducting portion of a nerve cell.  
basal surface   near the base interior of a structure  
Cell body   Focal point and recieves information for neurons.  
Chondro-   A prefix dealing with cartilage.  
calcify/ossify   to harden like a bone  
Dendrites   Motor neurons that convey incoming messages toward the cell body.  
desmosomes   binding bodies, scattered like rivets along the sides of cells  
Endocrine   Ductless glands that produce hormones and release directly  
Exocrine   Glands with ducts that release their products through specific paths  
extracellular matrix   Nonliving material in connective tissue  
fibers   slinder, thread like structure and/or filament  
Fibro-   A prefix dealing with tissue.  
gap junctions   communicating junction betweeb adjacent cells  
ground substance   non cellular components that contain fibers  
Hematopoietic   The formation of a blood cell.  
innervation   nerves being supplied to body parts  
intercalated discs   cells that fit together tightly at special places  
Involuntary   Something that can not be controlled.  
Longevity   Can funtion optimally for a lifetime with good nutrition.  
macrophages   Protective cell type  
mast cells   Immune cells that detect foreign substances  
Mesenchyme   Embryonic tissue that all connective tissues start out as  
Microvilli   Extensions/folds that increase surface area  
multinucleate   a cell with more than one nucleus  
Myofilaments   Brings about movement in all cell types.  
osteo-   related to bone  
proteoglycans   proteins that are heavily glycosylated  
Satellite Cells   Surround neuron cell bodies, resemble moons around a planet  
Schwann cells   Surround and are vital to the regeneration of nerve fibers.  
Secretion   process of making and releasing products (mostly protien)  
Simple vs Stratified   Simple is a single layer; Stratified is multiple layers  
striations   a repeating series of dark and light bands  
tight junctions   series of integral protein molecules, cells fuse together  
uninucleate   a cell with one nucleus  
Vascularity   Pertaining to blood vessels.  
Volutary   Something that can be controlled.  
Anucleate   A cell without a nucleus  
avascular   lacking blood vessels  
Calcify/Ossify   To change into bone from another tissue type  
chondro-   giving rise to cartilage  
endocrine   secreting internally into the blood or lymph  
exocrine   secreting to an epithelial surface  
Extra cellular matrix   gel-like substances composed of proteins, carbs, fibers and liquid outside of cells  
Fibers   Provide support to connective tissue  
fibro-   refers to the formation of connective tissue proper  
Ground Substance   molecular sieve that nutrients/dissolved substances can diffuse through between blood capillaries  
hematopoietic   cell that gives rise to all formed elements of blood  
Innervation   Supply of nerves to a body part  
Intercalated Discs   Connections between cells containing gap and desmosomes junctions  
involuntary   when mucles don’t move on there own  
Macrophage   “big eaters” dispose of dead tissue cells, foreign molecules, bacteria, dust particles, ect.  
Mast cells   along blood vessels and detect foreign microorganisms.  
mesenchyme   cells of mesodermal orgin that are capable of developing into connective tissues, blood, and lymphatic and blood vessels.  
microvilli   any of the small, fingerlike projections of the surface of an epithelia cell  
Multinucleate   contains more than one nucleus within that cell  
myofilaments   a general term for actin & myosin filaments  
Osteo-   relating to bone  
Proteoglycans   consists of a protein core that Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) connect to  
secretion   A process by which substances are produced and discharged from a cell, gland, or organ for a particular function in an organism.  
simple vs stratified   simple tissue has only one layer of cells, stratified has 2 to 20 or layers of cells the deepest layer attached to the basement membrane  
Striations   Repeating serious of dark and light bands  
Uninucleate   Has one nucleus  
vascularity   the amount of blood in a certain place  
voluntary   when mucles move on their own  
- BLAST   a cell that is forming  
- CYTE   a suffix meaning 'mature cell'  
AMITOTIC   can't divide (go through mitosis)  
ANUCLEATE   a cell without a nucleus  
APICAL SURFACE   top surface that separates the cells interior from its surroundings  
AVASCULAR   containing no direct blood input (Ex. Epithelium)  
AXONS   a part of a neuron that carries electrical signals throughout the body  
BASAL SURFACE   the surface near the base or interior of a structure  
CALCIFY / OSSIFY   to make or become bony; harden by the deposit of calcium  salts.  
CELL BODY   major life center of a neuron that contains normal cell organelles and processes electrical signals to determine whether to pass it on or not  
CHONDRO -   prefix that has to do with cartilage  
DENDRITES   receive electrical impulses from other neurons  
DESMOSOMES   cell junction composed of thickend plasma membranes joined by filaments  
ENDOCRINE   ductless glands that empty products directly into the bloodstream  
EXOCRINE   glands, with ducts, that carry products to a specific part of the body  
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX   ground substance and fibers found outside the connective tissue cells  
FIBERS   provide suppport, three different types found in conncective tissue (reticular, collagen, elastic)  
FIBRO -   prefix that has to do with connective tissue proper  
GAP JUNCTIONS   passageway between two adjacent cells  
GROUND SUBSTANCE   fills the space between fibers and cells; allows for diffusion of nutrients & waste  
HEMATOPOIETIC   stem cells that will become blood cells  
INNERVATION   supply of nerves to a body part  
INTERCALATED DISCS   gaps connecting muscle cells out of the muscle lining of the heart (myocardium)  
INVOLUNTARY   something that we do not consciously control (movement)  
LONGEVITY   long lasting life  
MACROPHAGES   these cells phagocytize a variety of materials; also known as "big eaters"  
MAST CELLS   detect bacteria, fungi, and/or injuries and make inflammatory responses against them  
MESENCHYME   the beginning tissue from which all connective tissues are derived  
MICROVILLI   tiny projections which increase surface area to provide for absorption  
MULTINUCLEATE   cell with more than one nucleus  
MYOFILAMENTS   filaments found in muscles that bring about movement or contraction  
OSTEO -   supports and provides levers for muscles and stores calcium  
PROTEOGLYCANS   collects GAGs which trap water and form a semi-solid liquid or gel-like substance  
SATELLITE CELLS   support, brace, and anchor neuron cell bodies in the PNS  
SCHWANN CELLS   surround and insulate nerve fibers  
SECRETION   the outward movement from a cell to the exterior  
SIMPLE vs STRATIFIED   only one cell layer as opposed to two or more cell layers  
STRIATIONS   alternating dark and light bands that are visible in certain muscle fibers  
TIGHT JUNCTIONS   where plasma membranes of different cells are fused  
UNINUCLEATE   cell with one nucleus  
VASCULARITY   pertaining to the amount of blood vessels in tissue--a rich supply of blood vessels  
VOLUNTARY   something that is controlled consciously (movement)  


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