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Western Civ I

1974 a skeleton of a hominid woman “Lucy” was discovered in Ethiopia, it was dated as _______ years old. 3.5 million
Discoveries in East Africa have shown that man’s ancestors lived there at least ________ years ago 5 million
Homo Sapiens migrated across the land bridge between Siberia and North America as far back as _________ years ago. 25,000
What was called the "Old Stone Age"? Paleolithic Era
_________________ groups followed herds of animals that provided food for the community. hunter/gatherer
__________________ people produced art and are considered by some scientists to be the first examples of Homo Sapiens or modern humban beings. Cro-Magnon
What was called the "New Stone Age"? Neolithic Age
______________ was an early type of agriculture practice. slash and burn
Mesopotamia "Land between the Rivers"
Mesopotamia refers to the Tigris-Euphrates river valley in present day ____________. Iraq
Hammurabi compiled a ____________ which prescribed punishments for crimes and established prices, wages and commercial transactions. code of law or law code
The ______________________ system of writing modified by the Greeks and Romans forms the basis for the English alphabet in use today. Phoenician
The Persian empire arose in modern day __________. Iran
______________, Cyrus' son, conquered Egypt in 525 B.C. Cambyses
Darius built a capital at _____________ in 520 B.C. Persepolis
The Greeks defeated the Persians at the __________________ in 490 B.C. Battle of Marathon
Persian religion was centered on the cult of __________________. Zarasthustra
The Minoans built a sophisticated civilization on and around the Island of Crete.
The Minoans devised a system of writing call Linear A
About 1200 B.C. the Mycenaeans engaged in war with the City of Troy, in present day Turkey
The Greek poet Homer wrote an epic about this conflict known as the Iliad
The age of Alexander is called by historians The Hellenistic Age
The Greeks held the first olympic games in 776 B.C.
The upper class Romans were called Patricians
The principal rival of the Romans were the ______________ from North Africa. Carthaginians
Wealthy Romans owned large plantations called latifundia
The Romans called the Mediterranean ___________________, our sea "Mare Nostrum"
Christianity started in _______________ during the Roman rule. Palestine
Routes known as _____________ were created by traders and travelers linkes much of Eurasia and North Africa. Silk Roads
The Roman Empire faced problems that brought about its fal. From 235 to 284 A.D., there were _______ claimants to the throne of Rome. 26
in 312 ______________ saw a vision that made him believe that the Christian God was on his side. Constantine
__________________________ or "Charles the GReat" reigned from 768 to 814. Charlemagne
Olduvai Gorge in _________ and Hadar in ________- have yielded rich remains of early hominids, like Lucy. Tanzania; Ethiopia
Australopithecus or ________ is the name given by scientists to these creatures. “southern ape”
_______________ enabled the hominids to grasp tools. Opposable thumbs
Modern man, Homo Sapiens, developed about ____________ years ago. 200,000
____________ separated Homo Sapiens from other species. The ability to adapt to changing surroundings ensured the survival of the species. Intelligence
Homo Sapiens migrated into the temperate regions of __________________. Africa, Europe and Asia
Small groups used ___________ created by the Ice Ages to migrate into Indonesia, New Guinea and Australia. land bridges
Other groups migrated across the land bridge between Siberia and North America as far back as __________ years ago. 25,000
By __________ years ago, Homo Sapiens had migrated to almost every inhabitable area of the world. 15,000
Evidence of _________ is seen in the burial practices of the Neanderthal peoples of Europe. reflective thought
____________ people produced art and are considered by some scientists to be the first examples of Homo Sapiens Sapiens or modern human beings. Cro-Magnon
Agriculture is seen for the first time around the year _________ 9000 B. C.
Peoples of modern day _____________ cultivated grains and domesticated animals. Iraq, Syria and Turkey
_____________ was an early type of agricultural practice. Slash and Burn
Advances in _________ caused an explosion in population. agriculture
________ had a population of 2000 before 2000 B.C. Jericho
Early crafts were _______________________. pottery, metallurgy and textile production
Mesopotamia,” Land between the Rivers” refers to the Tigris-Euphrates river valley in present day ______. Iraq
Water from the rivers made irrigation possible, which allowed the growing of grain crops by ___________ 6000 B. C.
_______, the southern part of Mesopotamia, attracted migrants from other areas. Sumer
By 3000 B.C. Sumer had a population of _______. 100,000
By 4000 B.C. the ________ built the first cities. Sumerians
Sumerian city-states dominated public affairs from _________________ 3200 to 2350 B. C.
After _________- the people of Mesopotamia started to build regional empires. 2350 B. C.
______ was the creator of an empire which conquered the Sumerian cities. Sargon of Akkad
The Babylonians, under ___________ dominated Mesopotamia until 1600 B.C. King Hammurabi
Hammurabi compiled a _________which prescribed punishments for crimes and established prices, wages and commercial transactions. code of law
Babylon, under ______________, dominated the region from 600 to 550 B. C. Nebuchadnezzer
The world’s earliest know system of writing was developed by the Sumerians. it was called __________ because of its wedge shaped symbols. cuneiform
Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews set down sacred writings during this period which would form the basis for the modern ____________. Christian Bible
The __________, a sea-faring people, occupied land north of the Israelite kingdom in present day Lebanon. Phoenicians
The Phoenician system of writing modified by the _____________ forms the basis for the English alphabet in use today. Greeks and Romans
The Hittites, an Indo-European people, who conquered the old Babylonian empire in 1595 B.C., invented the light, fast war _______. chariot
The Persian Empire arose in modern day _____. Iran
______ 558-530 B.C. launched the Persians imperial venture. Cyrus
______, Cyrus son, conquered Egypt in 525 B.C. Cambyses
_______ expanded the empire from the Indus River in the east to the Aegean Sea to the west. Darius
Darius built a capital at _________in 520 B.C. Persepolis
Darius was succeeded by ________ who sought to expand the empire. Xerxes
The Greeks defeated the Persians at the ____________ in 490 B.C. Battle of Marathon
Persian religion was centered on the cult of _________________. Its chief deity was Ahura Mazda. Zarasthustra
From 2000-1700 B.C. the Minoans built a sophisticated civilization on and around the island of _________. Crete
They devised a system of writing called ___________. Linear A
The Minoans traveled around the Mediterranean, spreading their culture.
About 2200 B.C. the Mycenaeans began to overpower the Minoans and establish settlements around the Mediterranean.
About 1200 B.C. the Mycenaeans engaged in war with the city of Troy, in present day Turkey.
The Greek poet Homer wrote an epic about this conflict known as the Iliad.
The most important institution in ancient Greece was the Polis, or city-state.
Sparta was a powerful, militaristic polis which reduced its neighbors to the state of servants to the state. They were called helots, or state slaves.
All Spartan boys entered military training at the age of 7. They entered active service in the Spartan army at 20 and served until retirement.
The Spartans main rival was the city-state of Athens. Citizenship was to adult males.
Solon was an Athenian statesman who tried to solve social problems in Athens.
The Greek city-states formed colonies around the Mediterranean basin.
The Greeks fought the Persians from 500 to 480 B.C.
Later Sparta and Athens fought each other in the Peloponnesian War 431-404 B.C. Sparta was victorious.
Phillip of Macedon took advantage of the conflict to take control of all Greece.
After his assassination his son, Alexander, know to us as Alexander the Great, took the throne.
He launched an invasion of the territory to the east which reached all the way to India.
Alexander died in 323 B.C., after conquering most of the known world.
After Alexander’s death his generals divided his empire into three states.
Antigonus took Greece and Macedon, Ptolemy took Egypt, and Seleucus took the eastern empire.
The age of Alexander is called by historians The Hellenistic Age.
Ptolemy controlled the wealthiest part of the empire, Egypt.
His capital, Alexandria, was home to the greatest library of the time.
The Greeks held the first Olympic Games in 776 B.C.
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were philosophers who influenced Greek thought and whose work has passed down to the present day.
Plato’s Republic is a classic work of philosophy still read today.
Chapter 11
Rome was founded in 753 B.C.
The Etruscans migrated to Rome in 1000 B.C.
The Roman nobility defeated the Etruscans in 509 B.C. and formed the Roman Republic.
Society in Rome was divided into two groups, Patricians or the wealthy and Plebeians or the poor.
Conflict arose between the two groups.
The Romans expanded their power into the Mediterranean area.
The principal rival of the Romans were the Carthaginians from North Africa.
Rome and Carthage fought three wars between 264 and 146 B.C. called the Punic Wars.
Rome emerged victorious.
Wealthy Romans owned large plantations called latifundia.
Some patricians wanted to redistribute land to the poor, the Gracchus brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were killed because of their efforts at land reform.
In 87 B. C. Rome fell into civil war.
Roman generals seized this opportunity to consolidate power and turn the republic into an empire ruled by one man.
Julius Caesar took power and became a dictator.
He was assassinated in 44 B.C. and more civil war followed.
Power fell to Caesar’s nephew Octavian, who fought and defeated his rival Marc Antony, who had allied Cleopatra of Egypt in 32 B. C. at Actium.
Octavian took the name of Augustus or The Great. He ruled until 14 A.D. (C.E.)
The Roman Empire expanded across the Mediterranean world and became dominant from Mesopotamia to Britain.
The Pax Romana or Roman Peace persisted for 250 years.
Romans built roads to link all parts of the Empire.
The Romans called the Mediterranean “ Mare Nostrum”, Our Sea.
Structures called aqueducts brought fresh water into Roman cities.
Christianity started in Palestine during the Roman rule.
Chapter 12
Long distance trade had begun during the Hellenistic Era because of the colonies founded during the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Spices, jewelry and other things were traded between the East and West.
Routes known as the Silk Roads were created by traders and travelers linked much of Eurasia and North Africa.
High quality silk was brought from China to the Roman Empire.
Spices were looked upon as medicines and highly valued as trade goods.
Early Christians were persecuted by the Romans.
Christianity spread throughout the Mediterranean area from Palestine because of missionaries such as Paul of Tarsus.
The increased contact between peoples of the East and the West also spread diseases such as smallpox and measles.
The Roman Empire faced problems that brought about its fall.
From 235 to 284 A.D. there were 26 claimants to the throne of Rome
The Emperor Diocletian tried to restore Rome to its former glory; he divided the Empire into eastern and western districts.
He was followed by Constantine who built a city in the eastern empire, in present day Turkey and named it Constantinople, after himself. After 340 it became the capital of the Roman Empire.
Rome suffered invasions from Germanic peoples on its northern frontiers. The Visigoths sought refuge from the Huns and turned to the Romans for help.
By 410 Alaric the Visigoth had sacked Rome.
In 476 A. D. Odovacer , a Germanic general had deposed the last Roman emperor in the west.
Christianity survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
In 312 Constantine saw a vision that made him believe that the Christian God was on his side.
St. Augustine of Hippo was a Christian bishop whose writings helped to spread Christianity in the Roman Empire.
As the authority of Rome crumbled, the Church took its place. The Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, emerged as the spiritual of the empire.
Chapter 13
The Eastern part of the Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire because of its location at the ancient site called Byzantium. Constantine’s city of Constantinople was built on this site.
The Byzantine Empire had a centralized rule which concentrated power in the hands of the Emperor.
Justinian was the most important of the early Byzantine rulers. He ruled from 527-565 A. D.
He codified Roman law into the Corpus Juris Civilis or The Body of Civil Law.
He also tried to reconquer the lands lost to the old Roman Empire.
The rise of Islam threatened the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Emperors tried stop the veneration of symbols called icons as heretical. This practice was called iconoclasm.
During this period the first Byzantine monasteries were founded.
In 1054 the Church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church in the west and the Eastern Orthodox Church in the east.
After the fall of the Roman Empire the Germanic peoples established states that succeeded Rome.
The Germans set up kingdoms in Spain, Italy, England and Gaul, present day France.
The Franks, a Germanic people, established a kingdom that organized about half of what had been the Roman Empire.
Clovis, the Frank, eliminated the last of Roman rule in France. He had converted to Christianity earlier.
Clovis’ reign was replaced by the Carolingian Dynasty, named after its founder Charles Martel.
Charles Martel (The Hammer) had defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732.
His grandson Charlemagne or “Charles the Great” reigned from 768 to 814.
Charlemagne had a court at Aachen in Germany and used officials called missi dominici to rule his kingdom.
He was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800.
After his death his son kept the empire together but lost control of the noble lords. By 843 the empire had been divided into 3 parts, roughly modern Germany, France, Austria and northern Italy.
Muslim invaders and Vikings from the north mounted raids into the empire.
Vikings from Scandinavian countries raided all over Europe as far away as England starting in about 800.
In 1000 a small group went as far as the North American coast.
Some local rulers, such as Alfred the Great in England resisted the Vikings.
Feudalism developed in medieval Europe as a political and economic system.
A lord gave a fiefdom, usually land, to a vassal who owed the lord rent in the form of military service or money.
Serfs were at the bottom of the system. Not chattel slaves, but they could not leave the land and owed labor and rent to the lord in the form of food that had been raised by them on the lord’s land.
The invention of the iron tipped plow with a mould-board made farming more efficient and increased agricultural production.
Increased food production led to an increase in population in Europe.
The Pope of Rome became the leader of the Catholic Church. Gregory I was most responsible for giving the Church its direction.
Monasteries were established and St. Benedict (480-547) wrote a book called The Rule that governed the operation of a monastery.
Monasteries established schools, hospitals and libraries.
Chapter 21
During the High Middle Ages (1300-1500) regional states emerged in Europe.
The Holy Roman Empire began when Pope John XII proclaimed Otto of Saxony as Holy Roman Emperor.
Lay Investiture or the appointment of church officials by kings became a controversy after Pope Gregory VII ordered an end to the practice.
The monarchy in France started with the election of Hugh Capet to serve as king.
The English monarchy began when William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 and seized the throne. He became know as “William the Conqueror”.
In Italy the Popes controlled areas known as the Papal States.
In Spain Muslims controlled most of the peninsula from 700 to 1492.
The Hanseatic League was a group of cities on the Baltic and North Sea coasts with a strong trade network.
During the Middle Ages society was divided into three categories; those who pray (the clergy), those who fight (soldiers), and those who work (peasants).
Merchants and workers who worked in the same crafts organized guilds to regulate their industry.
Universities started during the Middle Ages at places such as Bologna in Italy, Paris in France and Salerno in Italy.
In Spain the Reconquista, the retaking of the country from Muslims ended in 1492.
The Crusades were launched by Pope Urban II to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims. At the Council of Clermont in 1095 he offered salvation to all who would fight to end Muslim rule.
From 1097 to 1099 Antioch and Jerusalem were taken from the Muslims.
Saladin, the Muslim leader, took Jerusalem back in 1187.
The Crusades stimulated trade between the east and west and brought in the use of pepper and other spices in the European diet, among other things.
Chapter 22
In 1347 the Bubonic Plague first reached Europe. Called the “Black Death” because of the black buba or swelling caused by the disease, it killed one person in four in some areas of Europe.
England and France engaged the Hundred Years War from 1337 to 1453 over lands claimed by both sides in France.
In Europe a rebirth or Renaissance occurred in the arts from 1300 to 1500.
Chapter 23
From 1400 to 1800 Europeans explored the world’s oceans.
The demand for sugar and other goods spurred voyages all around the world.
The invention of the compass and the astrolabe helped the sailors find their way in unknown waters.
The Trade Winds made passage between east and west safer and quicker.
Prince Henry of Portugal started a school for navigation and Diaz sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and entered the Indian Ocean.
Christopher Columbus, an Italian sailing for Spain, reached the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas. He thought that he had reached the East Indies, so he called the people he met there “Indians”.
The Spanish explorer Balboa sighted the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
Magellan sailed around the world in 1522. This was the first circumnavigation of the earth.
Captain James Cook, an Englishman, made voyages to Hawaii, Australia, and New Zealand.
Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation by challenging the Catholic Church’s policy of selling indulgences to rich people to pardon them for their sins.
In 1517 he wrote Ninety Five Theses, it laid out his objections to Church policy.
Luther had support in Europe and by 1550 half the German population was Lutherans.
In England King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife, the Pope would not agree, so by 1560 England had broken away from the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church reformed many of the things that Luther objected to on its own.
Ignatius Loyola formed Society of Jesus in 1540.
In Europe the Thirty Years War devastated the land from 1618 to 1648. It was a war fought over religion.
King Henry VIII of England and Louis XI of France and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were known as the “new monarchs”
In Spain the Catholic Church conducted trials to find heretics. In 1478 Ferdinand and Isabella founded the Spanish Inquisition to root out Jews and Muslims.
Many people were executed for heresy.
In England the king’s powers were limited by constitutional authority. In other countries, such as France, Spain and Austria the monarch’s power was absolute.
In England a civil war was fought between the king and the forces of Parliament from 1642-1649.
In France the king’s power was unlimited, Louis XIV the “Sun King” kept his noble lords close by to watch them.
Nicolas Copernicus wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. He argued that the Sun stood still and the Earth and the other planets revolved around it. This was against the teachings of the Catholic Church.
Chapter 25
The Spanish began the conquest of Mexico in 1519; Cortez captured the Aztec emperor Montezuma.
The Native Americans had no immunity to the diseases that the Spanish and other Europeans brought.
Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in Peru in 1533.
The English and French founded settlements in North America. The English founded Jamestown in 1607.
The Europeans came into conflict with the Indians over land and hunting.
The fur trade caused conflict between the Indians and the Europeans.
As the colonies grew, tobacco became the chief crop of the southern colonies of Virginia and North Carolina.
Indentured servants provided labor for the plantations
About 1610 the first African slaves were brought to Virginia.
Slavery was not as common in the northern colonies since the land wasn’t suitable for tobacco.
Chapter 28
The Ottoman Empire began in 1289.
The Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453.
Created by: malrey3
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