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Cell Cycle SG

Cell Cycle

QuestionAnswer
What is carcinoma Epethelial derived tumors
What is adenocarcinoma A glandular tissue
True or False: In neuroepithelial tissue you have astrocyoma, glioblastoma and ependymoma True
How does chemotherapy work? By blocking cell cycle progression or asking cells to undergo apoptosis
Why do we have to worry about bacteria when on chemotherapy? Because neutrophils drop
What does radiation affect in the DNA? The structure
If DNA is damaged what does p53 do? It rises until apoptosis is induced
Are p53 inhibitors or activators of the cell cycle? Inhibitors
What does rituximab/rituxan target? CD20 which is only found on mature B cells
What happens if you block microtubules? You can arrest the cell cycle
Name processes that you need in the cell cycle Transcription, translation, protein dedradation, protein synthesis, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
Important things to note when prescribing combination drugs for cancer No overlapping toxicities, different mechanisms of action, synergistic, different patterns of resistance
What muscles and cells do not undergo cell division? Skeletal muscle, heart muscle, neurons
What type of epithelial lines ducts? Cuboidal
What type of epithelial lines arteries? Simple squamous
Where are stem cells located in the gut? In the crypt in the lumen
Where are the stem cells located in the stratified squamous? In the basal level
What are the major intermediate filaments targeted in the cell cycle? Lamin
Describe interphase Duplication of paired centrioles. Polymerization of spindle microtubules
Describe prophase There is a mitotic spindle
Describe prometaphase Nuclear envelope breaks down. Sister chromaticds are highly condensed
Describe metaphase Chromosomes line on the middle plate
Desribe anaphase Chromosomes separate to opposite poles
Difference between anaphase A and anaphase B A: Separation B: Elongation
What holds the sister chromatids together? cohesion
Describe telophase Reformation of the nucelar envelope which is facilitated by dephosphorylation of nuclear lamins
What is in the contractile ring that forms at the midplate? Actin and myosin
True or False: There are checkpoints throughout the cell cycle True
What controls the cell cycle? Kinase and cyclin (appears and disappears)
What needs to be made in order for the cell cycle to go forward? Cyclin
Name functions of cyclin Nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, golgi fragmentation, ER fragmentation and gene expression
If cyclin is present but cell is not ready to move on what happens? It produces an inhibitor, Ex. P21 or P27
What is the problem with proto-oncogenes? It can be locked in an on state promoting the cell cycle
Does a mutation in RAS cause tumors? Yes the mutation is when Ras in on the on state
What links RAS to the plasma membrane? Farnesyl anchor
How does rb affect the cell cycle? It is an inhibitor to transcription factor
When rb is mutated what happens? It stays in an off state (Serine replaced by glutamic acid)
p53 is considered what type of gene? A tumor suppressor gene
What does p53 cause the transcription of? mdm2 which leads to the destruction of p53
What does p53 lead to the activation of? p21 which is a negative regulator of the cdk complex
True or False: p53 can produce genes that drive the cell into apoptosis True