Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Cardiovascular SG

Cardiovascular System

QuestionAnswer
Describe the pulmonary system of the heart Right system sends deoxygenated blood to lungs
Describe the systemic circulation of the heart Left side pumps out oxygenated blood to all the organs in the body
What makes up the microcirculation? Small arteries and veins and capillaries
Is the lymphatic system directly under the pumping of the heart? No
True or False: The heart has its own circulation True. It has conronary arteries and cardiac veins that nuture the cardiac muscle
Which walls are thicker atrium or ventricles? Ventricles
Name the 3 layers of the heart Outer epicardium, Myocardium (muscle layer) and Endocardium
What are all of the structures of the heart lined with? Endothelium because they are exposed to the blood
How are myocardio cell coupled? Electrically through gap junctions
True or False: All of the conducting cells of the heart are nerves? False. All of them are specialized cardiac myocytes
Are myocytes as dense as working cells? No they have some myofibrils
Describe the cardiac skeleton Set of rings and intramembranous region that are all composed of dense irregualr connective tissue. They support the chambers and major blood vessels of the heart
What leaks out when a portion of the myocardium dies off due to blockage of coronary arteries? Troponin I and C leak out
What fibers do subendocardial contain? Purkinje fibers
What type of tissue are the valves of the heart? Dense irregular connective tissue
What can rheumatic fever lead to in the valves? Inflammation of the valves
If the valves lose their ability to close what happens? There can be backflow of blood
What can the accumulation of calcium in the valves cause? Tends to stiffen the valves. (Comes with age)
What are the layers of the mitral valve? Spongiosa, fibrosa and ventricularis.
What does spongiosa do when the valves close? It absorbs the shock
What are the three layers of vessels? Adventia, tunica media and tunica intima on the lumenal side
What is another name for medium arteries? Distributing arteries
Describe the route of the large arteries to microcirculation Large arteries-medium arteries-arterioles-capillary network to venules to venous side
What are pre-capillary sphincters purposes? Ways of controlling the amount of blood that flows to the capillary
What vessel in microcirulation releases heat from the skin? Capillaries
What are the smallest venules? post-capillary venules
What in the postcapillary venules support the movement of the leukocytes in and out of the vasculature, into the tissue? Specialized endothelium, cuboidal endothelium that's coupled to the movement of the leukocytes through the post-capillary venules
True or False: The pressure on the venous side is very high False: The pressure is very low
What helps the veins due to low pressure to prevent backflow? Valves
If the valves become inflammed or calcified what can happen? May not close properly and can lead to swelling in the legs due to pooling in the blood
In what veins are varicose veins located? Medium veins
Where is there a major pressure drop in the vasculature? In the arterioles. Major component of peripheral resistance, a lot of anti-hypertension drugs target this part
What is the intima lined with? Is it permeable? Simple squamous epithelium. It is a good permeability barrier because of the tight junctions
What factor do weibel-palade bodies contain? The von-Willebrand factor which promotes blood clotting
Does endothelium promote or inhibit blood clotting? It inhibits blood clotting
What is the role nitric oxide in signaling? A gas that is released from endothelial cells and diffuse to the smooth muscle in the media layer and cause relaxtion
In the intimal layer where are the endothelial cells sitting? On the basement membrane
What can be found in large arteries to propel blood forward? Rings of Elastic lamellae
Do you get more elastic lamellae as you age? Yes
Do the number of elastic rings increase or decrease with hypertension? Increase
Describe an aneurysm It is a boldging of the wall of the aorta which can lead to the separation of the intima from the media. Blood can get in between and cause it to explode
What are a lot of aneurysm associated with? What mutation? A mutation in the fibrillin gene which is associated with Marfan's syndrome
What growth factor is associated with fibrillin? TGF beta. When it doesn't associate with fibrillin it will be an overage of TGF beta
Describe the role of Losartin It is an angiotensin receptor blocker, can be effective in treating aneurysm, It affects TGF-beta synthesis
Is there a series of rings in the inner elastic membrane in muscular arteries/medium arteries? No. There is only one elastic membrane on the inside and one on the outside
Describe how plaque can form in the arteries Uptake of LDL enters the wall through macrophages, macrophages turn into foam cells, leads to intimal thickening and platelets stick to lumenal surface. Heart attack
Do veins have a thick medial wall? No they have a thin medial wall
In the vena cava what maintains the patency so it doesn't collapse? Smooth muscle bundles that run longitudinal in the adventia
Do medium size veins contain smooth muscle bundles? No
Describe continuous capillaries Has tight junctions, transcytosis vesicular transport, seen in peripheral nerves, muscle and respiratory system
Describe fenestered capillaries Have diaphragms for filtration sites that allow molecules to move in and out, found in GI tract, endocrine glands
Describe discontinous capilaries Basal lamina has gaps or is not present, gaps in endothelium, found in liver and spleen that have to move large debris in and out
What is the purpose of lymph nodes? They add or remove components of the lymph
Do lymphatics have valves? They have flap like valves to prevent back flow
What factor is involved in almost all processes that stimulate new blood vessel growth? VegF. It can stimulate smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells through various receptors. Tie-2 is an example of a receptor
What is angiogenesis? Stimulation of branching off of mature blood vessels. Stimulated by VegF
What does angiogenesis play a role in that is not good? Tumor growth. Tumors attract angiogenesis
What is the key stimulator of angiogeneis? Low oxygen hypoxia