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Reporting Category 3

Essential terms for STAAR-EOC Biology

Mutation any change in the sequence of the bases in DNA
evolution the process of changing over time
natural selection nature picks the best traits; more helpful traits become more frequent in a population when there are more offspring than resources
speciation two groups within a species seperate or differ to the point they will no longer reproduce
phylogeny the study of evolutionary relationships between organisms
fitness the ability to survive to reproduce and pass on your genes
geographic isolation a physical barrier divides a population
analogous structures body parts with similar function but not similar structure; they do not point to a recent commom ancestor
homologous structures body parts with similar structure that point to a commom ancestor
vestigial structures small or incomplete body parts that are no longer of use to the species but may have served a use to a common ancestor
stasis or genetic equillibrium genetic stability, staying the same genetically
mimicry One species evolves traits to resemble another species
genetic drift affects the genetic makeup of the population through a random process
gene flow movement of alleles from one population to another
taxonomy study of relatedness of organisms; classifying organisms based on similarities
dichotomous key series of paired statements (yes or no questions) that helps identify species; helps to organize organisms by characteristics
phylogenetic tree or cladogram a diagram that represents the evolutionary relationships within a group of organisms
aerobic requires oxygen
anaerobic does not require oxygen
extremophiles organisms that thrive in places where most other life can not (i.e. Archaea)
vascular tissue these plants have tubes which transport water and nutrients ; (xylem and phloem)
terrestrial land, or lives on land
invertebrate have no backbone or spinal column
vertebrate have a backbone and spinal column
reproductive isolation members of a population are not able or choose not to breed with other members of the population; can be geographic, temporal, behavioral
bottle neck occurs when a large number of the population is removed by a random event
adaptation a body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment
biogeography The study of the distribution of different species of organisms around the planet and the factors that influenced that distribution.
Founder effect occurs when few individuals relocate a new location to live, often a result of geographic isolation
Protista single and multicellular organisms that are plant-like, animal-like and fungi-like. They are eukaryotic and some are multi- or uni- cellular, hetero- or auto-trophic.
Eubacteria Single-celled prokaryotes that have a cell wall
Archaea Bacteria Single-celled prokaryotes that have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan.
Animalia Eukaryotic cells, multicelluar, heterotrophs
Plantae Eukaryotic cells, multicellular, autotrophs
Fungi Eukaryotic cells, multicellular, have cell walls made of chitin, heterotrophs