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Genetics The scientific study of DNA and how traits are passed down from one generation to the next
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid- contains the information organisms need to survive shaped like a double helix
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein and trait.
Protein Genes tell the body what proteins to make. When your body makes different proteins, that leads to you having different traits.
Chromosome A condensed strand of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.
Nucleotides Building blocks of DNA (A, T, C, G)
Double Helix Shape of DNA
Mutation A random error in an organism's DNA. Changes what proteins the body makes, and therefore changes what traits an organism has. Can be good, bad, or neutral.
Inherited Trait A characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring.
Acquired Trait a characteristic that a living thing gets during its lifetime
Physical Trait A trait that describes the way an organism looks
Behavioral Trait A trait describing how an organism acts, or something that it can do
Gregor Mendel The father of genetics - Experimented with pea plants to discover how genetics work.
Allele Different versions of the same gene.
Pure Bred/True Breeding An organism that has been bred with only similar organisms. Has a homozygous genotype.
P1 Generation parental generation
F1 Generation the first generation of offspring from the P1 generation
F2 Generation offspring of the F1 generation
Homozygous a genotype where the two alleles of a gene are the same (Ex: FF, dd, AA)
Heterozygous A genotype where an organism's two alleles are different (example: Ff, Dd, Aa)
Dominant Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
Recessive An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present. The recessive phenotype is only seen if there are NO dominant alleles.
Genotype The combination of alleles that an organism has for a trait
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Punnett Square diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a cross between two organisms
Hybrid Another word for heterozygous- when an organisms' genotype has two different alleles.
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