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APUSH Unit 2

What was the primary reason for the spectacular growth of America's population in the 18th century? The natural fertility of the population
German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in... Pennsylvania
The Scots-Irish eventually became concentrated especially in... The frontier areas
True or false: Compared with the 17th century, American colonial society in the 18th century showed smaller gaps in wealth and status between rich and poor. False. They showed wider gaps.
The most honored profession in colonial America was the... Clergyman
The primary source of livelihood for most colonial Americans was... Agriculture
What experience did Indians and African Americans have in common in the colonies? Creating new cultures and societies out of the mingling of diverse ethnic groups
An unfortunate group of involuntary immigrants who ranked even below indentured servants on the American social scale Convicts and paupers
The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among what ports? New England, Africa, and the West Indies
What did colonial merchants do in response to the passage of British restrictions on trade? Found ways to smuggle and otherwise evade the law by trading with other countries
Besides offering rest and refreshment, colonial taverns served an important function as centers of... News and political opinion
Why did the Anglican Church suffer in colonial America? Its poorly qualified clergy and close ties with British authorities
What two denominations were considered "established" churches in the colonies? Anglicans and Congregationalists
What was the most important result of the Great Awakening? It broke down sectional boundaries and created a greater sense of common American identity.
What was the primary weapon used by colonial legislatures in their conflicts with royal governors? Using their power of the purse to withhold the governor's salary
Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania Dutch (Doistch)
Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the Western frontier of the middle and southern colonies Scots-Irish
Rebellious movement of frontiersmen in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson Regulator Movement
Popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities Jayle Birds
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized Praying towns
A once-despised profession that rose in prestige after 1750 because its practitioners defended colonial rights Lawyer
Small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa, and the West Indies Triangular trade
Popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate Taverns
Term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics Established
Spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s Great Awakening
Ministers who supported the Great Awakening "New light" ministers
Ministers who rejected the Great Awakening "Old light" ministers
Institutions that were founded in greater numbers as a result of the Great Awakening, although a few had been founded earlier Colleges
The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel Zenger case
The upper house of a colonial legislature, appointed by the crown or the proprietor Council
Benjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables, and advice Poor Richard's Almanack
Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies George Whitefield
Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press John Peter Zenger
Colonial printer who studied and worked in Britain John Singleton Copley
Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin Philadelphia
Largest non-English group in the colonies African Americans
Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes toward Indians Quakers
Former slave who became a poet at an early age Phillis Wheatley
Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina Paxton Boys and Regulators
Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies Molasses Act
Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards
Group that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities Scots-Irish
Nonestablished religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening Baptists
Author, scientist, printer; "the first civilized American" Benjamin Franklin
Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights Patrick Henry
Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown Anglican church
What was the effect of the high natural fertility of the colonial population? Led to the increase of American population to 1/3 of England's in 1775
What was the effect of the heavy immigration of Germans, Scots-Irish, Africans, and others into the colonies? Resulted in the development of a colonial "melting pot," only 1/2 English by 1775
What was the result of the large profits made by merchants as military suppliers for imperial wars? Increased the wealth of the 18th century colonial elite
What was the result of American merchants' search for non-British markets? Was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade, e.g. the Molasses Act
What was the effect of dry over-intellectualism and loss of religious commitment? Created conditions for the Great Awakening to erupt ion the early 18th century
What was the effect of the Great Awakening? Stimulated a fervent, emotional style of religion, denominational divisions, and a greater sense of inter-colonial American identity
What was the effect of the Zenger case? Marked the beginnings of freedom of printed political expression in the colonies
What was the result of the appointment of unpopular or incompetent royal governors to the colonies? Prompted colonial assemblies to withhold royal governors' salaries
What was the result of upper-class fear of "democratic excesses" by poor whites? Reinforced colonial property qualifications for voting
What was the effect of the lack of artistic concerns, cultural tradition, and legislature in the colonies? Forced the migration of colonial artists to Britain to study and pursue artistic careers
True or false: Compared with the English colonies, New France was more democratically governed. False. New France was more autocratically governed.
In what areas did New France do the most expansion? Along the paths of lakes and rivers
Why were colonial Americans unhappy after the peace treaty following the "War of Jenkin's Ear"? The treaty gave the Louisbourg fortress they had captured back to France.
What was the original cause of the French and Indian War? Competition between French and English colonists for land in the Ohio River Valley
The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as... The Seven Years' War
What was the result of Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity at the Albany Congress? Rejection of the congress's proposal for colonial home rule both by London and by the individual colonies
The British forces suffered early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of.... General Braddock
Why did William Pitt's strategy in the assault on New France finally succeed? He concentrated British forces on attacking the vital strong points of Quebec and Montreal.
What was the decisive event in the French-British contest for North America? The British victory in the Battle of Quebec
What are two factors that tended to promote intercolonial unity during the French and Indian War? Common language and wartime experience
How did the French and Indian War weaken interior Indian peoples? It removed their French and Spanish allies from Canada and Florida.
What was the effect of Pontiac's attack on frontier outposts after the French and Indian War? Convincing the British to keep troops stationed in the colonies
What did the colonists think about the British Proclamation of 1763? It angered them because they thought it deprived them of the fruits of victory after the French and Indian War
Why did the French and Indian War create conflict between the British and American military? British officers treated the American colonial militia with contempt.
What was the effect on the colonists of the French removal from North America? It reduced the colonies' reliance on Britain and increased their sense of independence.
French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France Huguenots
Absolute French monarch who reigned for 72 years Louis XIV
Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost Beaver
French Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians Jesuits
Far-running, high-living French fur trappers Coureurs de bois
Part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with Spain Ear
Strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759 Louisbourg
Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists Ohio Valley
Bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America Germany
Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly led to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry Albany Congress
Military aide of British General Braddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat Washington
Fortress boldly assaulted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France Quebec
The "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officers' contempt Militia
Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763 Iroquois (Indians)
The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part Seven Years' War
Advocate of colonial unity at a 1754 meeting in upstate New York Benjamin Franklin
British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion Proclamation of 1763
French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British and shipped to Louisiana Acadians (Cajuns)
Conflict that started with the War of Jenkin's Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France War of Austrian Succession
Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi New Orleans
Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion Pontiac
Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war General Braddock
The Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians Samuel de Champlain
Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished Plains of Abraham
Strategic French stronghold; later renamed after a great British statesman Fort Duquesne
Militia commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war George Washington
Site of a meeting that proposed greater unity and home rule among Britain's North American colonies Albany
Conflict that began with George Washington's skirmish in Ohio and ended with the loss of France's North American empire Seven Years' War
French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch Robert de la Salle
Splendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America William Pitt
What was the effect of the French fur trade? Decimated beaver populations while spreading the French empire
What was the effect of the four "world wars" between 1688 and 1763? Were echoed by four small wars between French and British subjects in North America
What was the effect of competition for land and furs in the Ohio Valley? Led to Washington's expedition and battle with the French at Fort Necessity
What was the effect of the summoning of the Albany Congress by the British? Represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity
What was the effect of William Pitt's assumption of control of British government and strategy? Resulted in decisive French defeat and British domination of North America
What was the effect of Wolfe's victory over Montcalm at Quebec? Ended a string of defeats and turned the French and Indian War in Britain's favor
What was the effect of the colonial militia's military success in the French and Indian War? Increased American military confidence and resentment of British redcoats
What was the effect of colonial American smuggling and trading with French enemy? Increased British government's disdain for colonial Americans and raised doubts about their loyalty to the empire
What was the effect of the British issuance of the Proclamation of 1763? Heightened colonial anger and encouraged illegal westward expansion
What was the effect of Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne? Prompted widespread Indian assaults on the weakly defended colonial frontier
The British theory of mercantilism, by which the colonies were governed, held that... The colonial economy should be carefully controlled to serve the mother country's needs
What was one of the main ways mercantilism harmed the colonial economy? Forcing Virginia tobacco planters to sell their product only in Britain
Why was the mobilization of "nonimportation" policies against the Stamp Act politically important? It aroused revolutionary fervor among many ordinary American men and women
What was the effect of British officials enforcing the East India Company's tea monopoly and the three-pence tax on tea on the colonists? They were outraged because they saw it as a trick to undermine their principled resistance to the tax
How did the British react to the Boston Tea Party? Closing the Port of Boston until damages were paid and order restored
American colonists especially resented the Townshend Acts because... The revenues from the taxation would go to support British officials and judges in America
Why did the passage of the Quebec Act arouse intense American fears? It extended Catholic jurisdiction and a non-jury judicial system into the western Ohio country
What was the most important action the Continental Congress took to protest the Intolerable Acts? Forming The Association to impose a complete boycott of all British goods
What was the event that precipitated the first real shooting between the British and American colonists? The British attempt to seize colonial supplies and leaders at Lexington and Concord
Who headed the British parliamentary government at the time of the American Revolution? Lord North
The American rebellion was especially dangerous to the British because they were also worried about... Possible revolts in Ireland and war with France
What British political party was generally more sympathetic to the American cause? The Whig Party
One of the advantages the British enjoyed in the impending conflict with the colonies was... The ability to enlist foreign soldiers, Loyalists, and Native Americans in their military forces
One of the advantages the colonists enjoyed in the impending conflict with Britain was... Fighting defensively on a large, agriculturally self-sufficient continent
What side did African Americans generally fight on during the Revolutionary War? Both the American and British sides
The basic economic and political theory by which 17th- and 18th-century European powers governed their overseas colonies Mercantilism
The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain Navigation Laws
The term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets Enumerated products
Hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent Admirality courts
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members Virtual representation
The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable Nonimportation agreements
The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance Tea
Underground networks of communication and propaganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance Intercolonial Committees of Correspondence
Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility Roman Catholicism
British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause Whigs
German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries Hessians
Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness Continental
Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods The Association
Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution Patriots
Popular term for British regular troops, scorned as "lobster backs" and "bloody backs" by Bostonians and other colonials Recoats
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act George Grenville
Lexington passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce Stamp Act
Body led by John Adams that issued a Declaration of Rights and organized The Association to boycott all British goods First Continental Congress
Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops; disobeyed in New York and elsewhere Quartering Act
19 year old major general in the Revolutionary army Marquis de Lafayette
Wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers" John Hancock
Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain "Champagne Charley" Townshend
Zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees Samuel Adams
Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city's harbor Intolerable Acts
Stubborn ruler, lustful for power who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North George III
Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre Crispus Attucks
Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers Baron von Steuben
Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means Sons and Daughters of Liberty
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party Thomas Hutchinson
Event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly Boston Tea Party
What was the effect of America's distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government? Led to gradual development of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution
What was the effect of British mercantilism? Enforced restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency
What was the effect of the large British debt incurred defending the colonies in the French and Indian War? Led Grenville to propose the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act
What was the effect of the passage of the Stamp Act? Was greeted in the colonies by the nonimportation agreements, the Stamp Act Congress, and the forced resignation of stamp agreements
What was the effect of the British troops sent to enforce order in Boston? Fired on colonial citizens in the Boston Massacre
What was the effect of the British government's attempt to maintain the East India Company's tea monopoly? Spurred patriots to stage Boston Tea Party
What was the effect of the Boston Tea Party? Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act
What was the effect of the Intolerable Acts? Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress
What was the effect of a British attempt to seize the colonial militia's gunpowder supplies? Precipitated the battles of Lexington and Concord
What was the effect of the Continental Congress's reluctance to tax Americans for war? Resulted in the printing of large amounts of paper currency and skyrocketing inflation
During the period of fighting between April 1775 and July 1776, the colonists claimed that their goal was... To restore their rights within the British Empire
Why did George Washington proved to be an especially effective commander of American forces in the Revolution? His integrity, courage, and moral forcefulness
What was the bold American military strategy that narrowly failed in December 1775? An invasion of Canada by generals Arnold and Montgomery
What did many of the German Hessian soldiers hired by King George III to fight for the British do when they got to America? They ended up deserting because they had little loyalty to the British
Why did Thomas Paine's appeal for a new republican form of government attract many Americans? Their own experience with local and colonial democratic governance had prepared them for the idea
Paine's "Common Sense" was crucial in convincing many Americans that what they should fight for was.... An independent and republican America separate from Britain
What group of people were more likely to be Loyalists? Conservative and well-off Americans
Besides George Washington, the most militarily effective American officer in the early campaigns of 1776 and 1777 was.... General Benedict Arnold
Why was the Battle of Saratoga a key turning point of the War for Independence? It brought about crucial French assistance to the Revolutionary cause
What was the primary reason that Americans were willing to enter a military and diplomatic alliance with France in 1778? The practical self-interest of needing assistance to defeat the British
Where did the British especially rely on the numerous Loyalists to aid them in fighting the Patriots? Carolinas
Why did most of the Six Nations of the Iroquois under Joseph Brant fight against the American revolutionaries? They believed that a victorious Britain would contain westward American expansion
The British defeat at Yorktown was brought about by George Washington's army and... The French navy under Admiral de Grasse
In the peace negotiations at Paris, the French wanted the Americans to acquire what territory? Only the territory east of the Appalachian Mountains
The British yielded the Americans a generous peace treaty that included the western territories primarily because of... The desire of the weak Whig ministry in London for friendly future relations with the United States
The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army Continental Congress
The British colony that Americans invaded in hopes of adding it to the rebellious thirteen Canda
The inflammatory pamphlet that demanded independence and heaped scorn on "the Royal Brute of Great Britain" "Common Sense"
The document that provided a lengthy explanation and justification of Richard Henry Lee's resolution that was passed by Congress on July 2, 1776 Declaration of Independence
The term by which the American Patriots were commonly known, to distinguish them from the American "Tories" Whigs
Another name for the American Tories Loyalists
The church body most closely linked with Tory sentiment, except in Virginia Anglican
The river valley that was the focus of Britain's early military strategy and the scene of Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga in 1777 Hudson
Term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain Armed Neutrality
The region that saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Greene and British General Cornwallis Carolinas (South)
"Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping Privateers
British political party that replaced Lord North's Tories in 1782 and made a generous treaty with the United States Whigs
The western boundary of the United States established in the Treaty of Paris Mississippi River
The irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause Rebel Militiamen
The other European nation besides France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain Holland
British general who chose to enjoy himself in New York and Philadelphia rather than vigorously pursue the American enemy General Howe
Brilliant American general who invaded Canada, foiled Burgoyne's invasion, and then betrayed his country in 1780 Benedict Arnold
American naval commander who successfully harassed British shipping John Paul Jones
Author of an explanatory indictment, signed on July 4, 1776, that accused George III of establishing a military dictatorship Thomas Jefferson
Shrewd and calculatingly "homespun" American diplomat who forged the alliance with France and later secured a generous peace treaty Benjamin Franklin
Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries Joseph Brant
The decisive early battle of the American Revolution that led to the alliance with France Saratoga
Military engagement that led King George III officially to declare the colonists in revolt Bunker Hill
Americans who fought for KG3 and earned the contempt of Patriots Loyalists
A wealthy Virginian of great character and leadership abilities who served his country without pay George Washington
The British defeat that led to the fall of North's government and the end of the war Yorktown
Leader whose small force conquered key British forts in the West George Rogers Clark
A radical British immigrant who put an end to American toasts to King George Thomas Paine
Fiery Virginian author of the official resolution of July 2, 1776, formally authorizing the colonies' independence Richard Henry Lee
Blundering British general whose slow progress south from Canada ended in disaster at Saratoga General Burgoyne
What was the effect of the Battle of Bunker Hill? Caused King George to proclaim the colonies in revolt and import Hessian troops to crush them
What was the effect of Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"? Stirred growing colonial support for declaring independence from Britain
What was the effect of Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence"? Inspired universal awareness of the American Revolution as a fight for the belief that "all men are created equal"
What was the effect of the Patriot militia's political education and recruitment? Won neutral or apathetic Americans over to the Patriot cause
What was the effect of the blundering of Burgoyne and Howe and the superb military strategy of Arnold and Washington? Led to the failure of Britain's grand strategy and the crucial American victory at Saratoga
What was the effect of the Battle of Saratoga? Made France willing to become an ally of the United States
What was the effect of the trapping of Cornwallis between Washington's army and de Grasse's navy? Caused the British defeat at Yorktown and the collapse of North's Tory government
What was the effect of the collapse of the North ministry and the Whig takeover of the British government? Caused the British to begin peace negotiations in Paris
What was the effect of Clark's military conquests and Jay's diplomacy? Led to American acquisition of the West up to the Mississippi River
What was the effect of Jay's secret and separate negotiations with Britain? Led to a favorable peace treaty for the United States and the end of French schemes for a smaller, weaker America
Created by: ejustice75
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