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Stem Cells SG

Stem Cells

Are stem cells terminally differentiated? No. It has the potential to differentiate
What is the name of the cell that stem cells are in? Niche cell
What can stem cells give rise to? Another stem cell or a progenitor cell
What is invariant asymmetry? If a signal is present it will divide asymmetrically and give rise to one lineage of differentiated cells
What is population asymmetry? Some randomness is involved. It can renew itself and give rise to one lineage or differentiate into cells from one lineage or another lineage. Randomness more choices involved
What is meant by embryo cells are totipotent? Can give rise to all cells and make the extraembryonic membranes and placenta
What does pluripotent mean? It can give rise to all somatic cells
What does multipotent mean? It can give rise to several different lineages
What does unipotent mean? It can give rise to one lineage
The more developed primitive cells are what is more likely? More likely it can give rise to tumors
What is the benefits and cons to using a progenitor cell that is regionally specified? Benefit: Fewer steps and lose fewer cells. Cons: Doesn't divide as well
What is meant by the later in lineage a cell is the less myologenic it is? Too few cells but more reliabel to get what you want.
What is the marker form cardiac myocytes? Cardiac myosin
What is the marker for smoothe muscle cells? Smooth muscle actin
What is the marker for endothelial cells? Von Willebrand Factor
Name problems with using stem cells on sick people? Sometimes not reproducible in different laboratories. It is hard to take a sick person and isolate cells from them and wait for them to mature
Why can you get stem cells from embryos? Because the inner cell mass gives rise to all tissues in the body (Pluripotent but not stem cells yet)
Name things the ectoderm gives rise to Skin, nerves and eye tissues
Name things the mesoderm gives rise to Bone, blood and muscles
Name things that endoderm give rise to Lungs, liver, lining of the gut
What was the feeder layer when stem cells were being made in the lab? Feeder layer was mice cells that were putting nutrients into the culture
What is the major problem with using embryo stem cells? They have a high capacity for producing tumors when injected in adult recipient
Describe therapeutic cloning Pull out the nucleus of eff from embryo and replace it with a somatic cell from the adult. Then do electrofusion. Now the embryo has the same kind of genotype except for mitochondrail DNA that comes from the egg.
Why might therapeutic cloning be useful? To overcome the problem that the genotype from the embryo might not be compatible with the adult it is bing injected into
Name some alternatives to using embryo stem cells Somatic stem cell, Human ES cell and Trans differentiation
Name some transcription factors that are necessary for pluripotency Oct-4, Sox-2 and NANOG
What defines pluripotency? The little circuit created by factors that can inhibit or cause the synthesis of another factor in the group
What is a characteristic transcription factor across all animals? NKX 2.5
Are iPS (induced Pluripotent stem cells)cells totipotent? No because they can't make extraembryonic membranes
How can you make iPS cells? By taking somatic cells and placing reprogramming genes in the culture
What does tetraploid complementation mean? You have embryos that are mutated
In the experiment involving the pancreas they tried to induced what cells to secrete insulin? beta cells
What are the problems associated with iPS cells? They can induce an immune response and may still bear oncogenioic property even after differentiated
What was different about the experiment involving direct reprogramming of fibroblast? They didn't send them through a stem cell stage.



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