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Blood Formation

Blood cell formation

QuestionAnswer
How many red blood cells are made per hour? 10^10
How much more neutrophils do we need to make in comparison to RBCs? 240 times more
Where are almost all of our blood cells made when we are developing? Egg yolk sac (Mesoblastic Phase)
When does the mesoblastic phase shut down? At about 3 months
When does the hepatic phase shut down? About 9 months
What is the myeloid phase? Development of blood in the bone marrow
As we mature into our twenties where is most of our blood maturing occuring? In our flat bones (Clavicle, Pelvis, Ribs)
What type of marrow do we find in long bones? Marrow that became dormant called yellow marrow
Does yellow marrow have the potential to act as a source for hematopoiesis? Yes, it has the potential
What type of cell do all various types of cells come from? Pluripotent stem cell
What choices do the daughter cells have after they have been divided? One daughter of each cell division can become something else
True or False: When a cell divides one of the daughter cells is an absolute replica and the other isn't True
What choice does hemopoetic stem cells have early on? To become a lymphoid stem cell or myeloid stem cell
What can lymphoid stem cells differentiate into? B and T cell lineages
What can myeloid cells differntiate into? Granulocytes, Agranulocytes and mast cells
When a cell is absolutely committed what can't it do? Can't be reversed
After radiation poisoning what was discovered the body couldn't do? Incapable of making red blood cells and missing almost all of the leukocytes
What influences the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells? Location: Bone marrow. Growth factors along with receptors that respond to it.
What does cell signaling tell a cell to do? To continue to divide or not to die
On the committed pathway what do cells do? Continue to divide until the nucleus becomes condensed and cannot divide anymore
Name functions of red blood cells Deliver oxygen, pick up oxygen from the respiratory system and delivers oxygen to the tissue and picks up carbon dioxide from the tissue
Do red blood cells have a nucleus? No.
What happened to the nucleus that was in red blood cells? It became condensed and eventually was spit out
What stage marks the end of being able to make new cells in RBCs? Chromatophilic/polychromatophilic
When differentiating pathways set in and the cytoplasm becomes basophilic what is the cell called? Basophilic erythroblast
What is left after the nucleus is spit out? Normoblast
What is the cell called after the nucleus is spit out? Recticulocyte or polychromatophilic erythrocyte
What does a RBC have to do to mature? Get rid of ribosomes and few remnant organelles
After the nucleus is spit out what happens to it? It is phagocytized by macrophages present
What can happen if there is a high demand for oxygen but the reticulocytes are not mature RBCs yet? The reticuolytes can be relased before they are fully matured in that situation
Name the first step in a neutrophils pathway to formation. It is a promyelecyte cell that starts accumulating granules
Do promyelecytes have specific granules? No. They are morphologically indistinguishable from basophils and eosinophils
When can you start telling neutrophils apart form basophils or eosinophils? When they are myelocytes because they have specific granules
What happens in the stage of the neutrophil being a metameyelocyte? The nucleus deforms until it is no longer able to go through mitosis
Describe the deforming of the nucleus? It first indents and become concave then it becomes so deforemed that is called a band cell
What is the last stage called for neutrophils? The myelocytic stage
What happens to the nucleus in the neutrophil? It starts to pinch off into several lobes (minumum of 3 lobes)
How many times does the nucleus pinch off in a basophil? About 3 times or so
How many times does the nucleus pinch off in a eosinophil? Only 1 time
What are platelets? They are fragments of the precursor cell. They are not a developing cell
In platelets there are divisions at each stage of mitosis. Up to how many cells? 64 cells
Describe endomitosis of platelets The nucleus and size of the cell are getting bigger and bigger
What is the source of becoming the platelets? Processes from megakaryocytes are going to be the source to the pinching off and becoming platelets
Where do all of the cell processes take place? In the bone marrow
How does marrow play a role in the developing cells? The stromal structure plays a role of dynamics. There are various islands of development in the marrow.
Where do the huge megakaryocytes sit in the marrow? On the surface of the sinus
Is the sinus wall discontinuous or continuous endothelium? Discontinuous (Gaps in basal lamina)
What is underneath the sinus wall? An advential cell or reticular cell
Describe reticular cells They are in lymph nodes and are sending out processes to help organize the space of reticular fibers
What factor is the key to regulating the existence of pluripotent cells? Steel factor
To maintain the stem cells you have to have a special type of receptor, what is it called? C-kit
What is steel factor the ligand for? C-kit
Why do you need steel factor to bind to C-kit? To get the singaling pathways that are necessary for the stem cells to stay in existence long enough to undergo division
What form does steel factor exist as in the body? As a transmembrane protein associated with the plasma membrane of the advential cells
Why can't you shut down steel factor when it is bound? Because when it is bound the signal is preserved.
Where is the only location in the body steel factor is bound and stable? In the bone marrow
If you damage the marrow where else can hematopoiesis occur? In the liver