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biochem pathways

aerobic glycolysis f/s/p Functions: Produce energy and produce substrates for other anabolic pathways. Substrates: Glucose (or G-6-P),ADP,NAD+ Product: ATP, pyruvate/lactate, NADH--->if lactate is the product, NADH isn't the product
aerobic glycolysis c/r/c/t Control Enzymes: PFK-1 (phosphofructokinase-1) Regulation: Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and ratio of ATP to ADP Compartment(s): Cytosol Tissues of interest: ALL OF THEM!
tca f/s/p Fx:-to produce energy (in the form of ATP) by the oxidation of foodstuffs! -Eight e- are donated by the acetyl group (3 nadh get 2 e-, fadh gets 2 e-) Subs: Acetyl CoA, H2O, NAD+, FAD, GDP, Pi Products: CO2, NADH, H+, FADH2, GTP
tca c/r/c/t Control Enzymes: -2 primary control enzymes: Isocitrate dehydrogenase and a-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase -other- CAIK sounds so fucking mint Regulation: ATP/ADP ratio and the rate of ATP use Compartment(s): Mitochondrial matrix Tissues: all except rbc
glycogen synthesis f/s/p Fx: maintain blood glucose later(liver). glucose so you can use it for energy for contractions at a later time (muscle). Substrates: ATP, glucose, UTP Products: ADP, (glucose-6-phosphate is an intermediate), glycogen, pyrophosphate (PPi --> 2Pi), and U
glycogen synthesis c/r/c/t Control Enzyme: glycogen synthase Regulation: Insulin/Glucagon ratio and amount of glucose present (liver), epinephrine can also inhibit. Muscle insulin level (muscle). Compartment: cytosol tissues: liver and muscles
glycogenolysis (glycogen degradation)f/s/p Function: Provide blood glucose (liver). Provide glucose to produce energy for muscle contractions (muscle). Substrates: Glycogen, Free phosphates Products: free glucose and g-1-p or g-6-p
glycogenolysis (glycogen degradation)c/r/c/t Control: debrancher enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase Reg: G phosphorylase, also epi has an effect. (Phosphorylation activates control enzyme.) In muscle, GNL is regulated via activation of glycogen phosphorylase by [AMP], [Ca2+],presence of epi C: Cytosol
pentose phosphate pathway function Functions: To make NADPH (used for detoxification [ie. glutathione synthesis] and Reductive Biosynthesis [ie. fatty acid synthesis]) and Ribose 5 phosphate (nucleotide synthesis) .
pentose phosphate pathway s/p Substrates: Glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ Products: NADPH, CO2, ribose-5-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
ppp pathways There are two routes the pathway can take, oxidative (irreversible) and nonoxidative (reversible).
ppp oxidative pathway The first pathway is the oxidative pathway. This is where NADPH, ribulose 5-phosphate, and CO2 are generated. This pathway is a substrate for glutathione reductase, fatty acid synthesis, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and deoxynucleotide synthesis.
ppp nonoxidative pathway The second pathway is the nonoxidative pathway. This pathway synthesizes ribose 5-phosphate.
ppp s/p/c/r Substrates: Glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ Products: NADPH, CO2, ribose-5-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Control Enzymes: Glucose-6-P dehydrogenase Regulation: Level of NADPH (product inhibition) (feedback inhibition)
ppp feedback inhibition Feedback inhibition: cells keep a high level of NADPH to push reactions forward, when levels of NADPH are high, oxidative pathway is inhibited. When NADPH levels are low, oxidative pathway is activated.
ppp compartment/tissues of interest Compartment(s): Cytosol Tissues of interest: Every cell in the body
gluconeogenesis f/s/p Functions: To synthesize glucose from amino acids, lactate & glycerol in order to maintain blood glucose levels. Substrates: Amino acids, lactate, glycerol, ATP, GTP, NADH Product: Blood glucose, ADP, GDP, NAD+
gluconeogenesis control enzymes and regulation Control Enzymes: Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase Regulation: PEP carboxykinase (induced primarily by cortisol, but also by all the other counterregulatory hormones)
gluconeogenesis compartments and tissues of interest Compartment(s): Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate takes place inside the mitochondria, remainder in cytosol. Glucose 6-phosphatase is in the ER Tissues of interest: Liver mainly. In extreme starvation, the kidney cortex may produce glucose mostly for itself
Created by: carolanimal
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