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Metabolism

WVSOM Class of 2012 Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
aerobic catabolism runs off of what? what does it yield? stored fuel molecules; yields CO2 and H2O
during aerobic catabolism, FADH and NAD+ reduce to what? FADH2 and NADH
Reoxidation of NADH and FADH2 yields what? what process accomplishes this? ATP; oxidative phosphorylation
anabolism is what kind of process? reductive
during anabolism, what pathway reduces oxidized NAD+ to yield an ATP molecule? pentose/phosphate pathway
what is the pathway to catabolize a fatty acid to CO2? beta-oxidation then TCA
what compounds link aerobic glycolysis with TCA? pyruvate and acetyl CoA
does pyruvate or acetyl coa cross the mitochondrial membrane? pyruvate
electrons, not ____ cross into the mitochondria: nucleotides
carbons, not ____ cross into the mitochondria: electrons
why is the TCA cycle aerobic? NADH and FADH2 have to be reoxidized
in the fed state, what happens to lactate when it is anaerobically metabolized? oxidized in aerobic cells or converted to fatty acids for storage
ketones are produced in the fasted state where? where are they then oxidized? liver; extrahepatic tissues
what is the major storage form of body fuel? triglycerides
if glycogen is depleted, what anabolic pathway will increase the blood glucose? gluconeogenesis
do RBCs perform glycolysis aerobically or not? what is the end product? not; lactate
aside from RBCs, where else is glucose used anaerobically? contracting skeletal muscle
if an amino acid can provide a carbon for gluconeogenesis, it is termed what? if not, it is called what? glucogenic, ketogenic
how does glucagon regulate insulin levels? it signals phosphorylation of enzymes
what is the organ location for synthesis of fatty acids, glucose, cholesterol, and ketone bodies? liver
in the fasted state, what is the fate of lactate? converted into glucose
ketones are the result of excess what? carbons
what is the storage form of glucose? what limits this storage? glycogen; number of hepatocytes
where are triglycerides stored? adipocytes
glycogen stored in extrahepatic cells can only be used where? within the cell that stores them
in what organ does gluconeogenesis occur? liver
in the fasted state, what two molecules are catabolized first? fatty acids and ketones
ketogenic amino acids are catabolized where? liver
where is most ketogenic energy utilized? liver
when amino acid carbons are catabolized, the nitrogens are converted to what for excretion? urea
in the fed state, excess glucose can be stored in what two forms? glycogen and triglycerides
in the starved state, can the body use fatty acids for gluconeogenesis? no
Created by: mhassan