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Ch. 5 Lipids

What are Lipids? Family of compounds soluble in organic solvents, and insoluble in H20.
What do Lipids consist of? Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols.
What are the primary elements in Lipids? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.
What are Triglycerides? (TG) - Major type of fat in foods and body.
What are Triglycerides classified as in foods? Fats and oils.
What is a Fat? Solid at room temperature.
What is an Oil? Liquid at room temperature.
What are Triglycerides comprised of? 3 units of fatty acids and 1 unit of glycerol.
What do Triglycerides provide? 9 Kcal/gram.
How do Fatty Acids Differ in chain length? Short, Medium, and Long.
How do Fatty Acids Differ in Degree of Saturation? Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated.
Besides degree of saturation and chain length, how do fatty acids differ? Location of double bonds.
What are short Fatty Acids Chain Lengths? Relatively rare, 4-6-9 C, milk fats, easy to digest.
What are medium Fatty Acids Chain Lengths? Relatively rare, 10-12-14 C, milk fats, easy to digest.
What are long Fatty Acid Chain Lengths? Most common, 16-18-20-22-24 C. Meat, fish, vegetable oils, complex digestion.
What are Saturated Fats? Maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms, single bonds only between carbon atoms, solid at room temperature.
What is Unsaturated Fat? Has at least one double bond between carbon atoms because hydrogen atoms are missing. Double bond is point of unsaturation, they are unstable. Liquid at room temperature.
What is Monounsaturated Fat? MUFA - one double bond.
What is Polyunsaturated Fat? PUFA - two or more double bonds.
What is Hydrogenation? Hydrogen added to unsaturated fats to reduce number of double bonds. More sold, protects against rancidity (oxidation. Not all bonds are eliminated.
What happens to double bonds that remain after Hydrogenation? Change from CIS configuration to trans configuration.
What is a Omgea-3 fatty acid? First double bond three carbons away from methyl end.
What is a Omega-6 fatty acid? First double bond six carbons away from methyl end.
What do Phospholipids consist of? Glycerol with 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphorus-containing group.
What is Phosphorus? Soluble in water.
What is a Fatty Acid? Soluble in fat.
What are the Roles of Phospholipiids? Transport lipids across cell membranes, emulsifiers.
What is an example of an Phospholipid? Lecithin - made by liver. Supplements increase energy intake and cause GI symptoms.
What are Sterols? Compounds with a multiple ring structure.
What is an example of a Sterol? Cholesterol, several hormones, bile.
What are sources of Sterols? Exogens, and Endogenous.
What is Exogenous? From outside the body (animal derived foods).
What is Endogenous? Made by the body.
What is the function of Sterols in the body? Structural component of cell membranes, starting material for bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones and Vitamin D.
What is Hydrophobic? Non-water soluble.
What is Hydrophilic? Water soluble.
What is Lipase? Enzyme that digest fats.
What are Monoglycerides? Product of fat digestion. 1 glycerol with 1 fatty acid.
How is fat digested in the mouth? Lingual lipase acts on long chain fatty acids (LCFA), especially fatty acids of milk. Important to infants.
How is fat digested in the Stomach? Churning action mixes fat with water and acid, gastric lipase hydrolyzes a small amount of fat.
How is Fat digested in the small intestine? Bile from the gall bladder is an emulsifier, recycled back to the liver or binds to fiber to be excreted. Pancreatic and intestinal lipases.
What does digestion of fats in the small intestine result in? Monoglycerides, glycerol, fatty acid fragments.
What are the small molecules of lipid absorption that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream and diffuse into intestinal cells? Compounds of glycerol, short and medium chain fatty acids.
What are the large compound molecules? Monoglycerides, long chain fatty acids.
How are the large compounds lipids absorbed? Merge into micelles, move into the intestinal cells, reassembled into new triglycerides and packed into chylomicrons for transport. Released into lymphatic system.
What are the large compounds reassembled into? Triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids.
How are Lipoproteins transporter? Transport fatty materials through the lymph and the watery medium of the blood.
What do Lipoproteins consist of? Inner core of hydrophobic lipids with outer shell of proteins and phospholipids.
What do Lipoproteins contain varying amounts of? Tryiglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and protein.
What are Chylomicrons? Made in the small intestine, transport dietary lipids (triglycerides) throughout the body via the lymph system. Cells remove the lipids as the chylomicron passes and gets smaller and smaller.
What organ collects the remnants of chylomicrons? Liver which dismantles it and it is reused or recycled.
What is VLDL? Very low density lipoprotein. Produced in the liver. Composed primarily of triglycerides. Transports the lipid that is stored or made in the liver (from fat, excess carbs or alcohol). Cells remove triglycerides, causing VLDL to shrink.
When VLDL shrinks what happens? Proportion of lipids shift, density rises. Cholesterol rich lipoprotein becomes low density lipoprotein (LDL).
What is LDL? Low density lipoprotein, evolves from the VLDL. Transports lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids) to the tissues. e.g. heart muscles, fat stores, mammary glands etc.
What are the uses for LDL? Build new membranes ,make hormones or other compounds, or is stored for later use.
What is HDL? Made in the liver, acts as a scavenger for excess cholesterol and other fats. Returns excess cholesterol and other fats to liver for breakdown.
What are the usefulness of fats in foods? Provides essential fatty acids, provides more energy per gram then carbs or protein. Carries fat-soluble vitamins. Enhances the aroma and flavor of food. Contributes to satiety. Helps make food tender.
What are the usefulness of fats in the body? Serve as an energy reserve - triglycerides. Cushions for vital organs. Protects the body from temperature extremes. Carries fat soluble nutrients. Serves as raw materials for other molecules. Forms the major material of cell membranes.
What are Essential Fatty Acids? Linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that must be supplied by the died.
Where are Essential Fatty Acids found? Oils of plants and cold-water fish.
What is the function of Essential Fatty Acids? Provide raw materials for regulatory substances, serve as structural parts of cell membranes, constitute a major part of lipids in the brain and nerves, essential to normal growth.
What is EFA Deficiency? Growth retardation, skin abnormalities, kidney and liver disorders, reproductive failure, nerve, vision damage, deficiency of omega-3 (EPA and DHA) may be associated with depression.
What are Linoleic Fatty Acids? An omega-6 fatty acid, used to make other mega-6 fatty acids from linoleic fatty acid. Arachidonic acid.
What are the sources of Linoleic Fatty Acids? Dark green leafy vegetables, seeds, nuts, grains and vegetable oils.
What are Linolenic Fatty Acids? An omega-3 fatty acid known as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Converted into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaneic acid (DHA.
What are sources of EPA and DHA? Fish oils and human milk.
What are sources of Linolenic Fatty Acids? Oils (flaxseed, canola, walnut, wheat germ, soybean), nuts and seeds, soybeans.
What are Eicosanoids? Made from arachidonic acid (omega-6) or EPA (omega-3). Include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes.
What are the health benefits of Eicosanoids made from EPA? Low blood pressure, prevent, blood clot formation, protect against irrecgular heartbeat, lower inflammation.
What is the recommended ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids? 6:1.
What is the typical ratio of a U.S diet for omega-6 to omega-3? 10: 1 - 25:1.
What is the Paleolithic ratio of omega-6 to omega 3 fatty acids? 1:1.
How is fat for energy used in regards to metabolism? 60% of energy needs during rest, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) helps stored TG to be released into bloodstream.
When do ketone bodies form? When fat is used for energy when there is inadequate carbohydrates.
When is fat stored as fat? If too much fat in diet, stored in adipose tissue. Enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) captures circulating triglycerides from lipoproteins after a meal.
When are carbs or proteins stored as fat? If too many overall calories, carbs and protein can be formed into triglycerides and stored as fat in adipose tissue.
What is the health effects of lipids? Increased fat in the diet raises risk of heart disease, some types of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.
What is the prevalence of Cardiovascular disease in America? Number one killer is US every year. 2600 per day. 61.8 million Americans. CHD: 12.9/ STROKE: 4.7.
What are the risk factors for CHD? Increasing age, gender, heredity, smoking, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity and overweight, diabetes mellitus.
What is the desirable level of total cholesterol? <200 mg/dl.
What is the desirable LDL level? <100 mg/dl.
What is the desirable HDL level? > or = to 60 mg/dL.
What is the desirable Triglycerides level? <150 mg/dl.
Where can Saturated fat and dietary cholesterol be found? Cheese, butter, full fat milk, beef, pork, lamb, ice cream, cakes, pies cookies.
Where is dietary cholesterol found strictly? Only in animal foods.
What is shellfish and eggs consistent of? High in cholesterol, low in saturated fat.
What is coconut and palms oil consistent of? No cholesterol, high in saturated fat.
What is the recommended intake of fat? Less than 30% of calories, DRI - 20 - 35%.
What is the recommened level intake of saturated fat? <10% of energy intake or (0-10%).
What is Sucrose Polyester? Olestra, a core molecules of sucrose to which eight fatty acids are bonded. Human digestive enzymes do not recognize the olestra molecule and cannot split the fatty acids from the sucrose. Remains undigested and passes through the body intact.
What are the concerns with Olestra? Diarrhea, inhibits absorption of EFA, vitamins A,D,E,K. Losses of beta-carotene and other phytochemicals.
What is Simplesse? Modified milk and egg proteins (may cause allergic reaction in some). Digested and absorbed as protein, 4kcal/gram. Only for use in chilled cold food (ice cream, frozen desserts). Breaks down with heat.
Created by: jordynoceana
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