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Gycolysis Reactions

WVSOM Class of 2012 Glycolysis Reactions

at the end of the first, preparative phase of glycolysis, what two events occur? 1. 2 ATP have been expended to activate molecules 2. two triose-phosphate molecules are formed from each glucose molecule.
at the end of the second phase of glycolysis, for each glucose oxidized, what has happened? (1) two NAD+ have been reduced to 2 NADH (2)4 ATP have been produced (a net of 2 ATP are produced overall)
hexokinase and glucokinase are what kind of molecules? isoenzyme forms of the same enzyme
where does glucokinase occur? liver
function of glucokinase? processes excess glucose for storage as glycogen or conversion to triglyceride
what is the only site that can reverse or dephosphorylate glucose-6-phosphate and export glucose? liver
what enzyme regulates glycolysis? Phosphofructokinase (PFK1)
NAD+ is reduced to NADH by what molecule? glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic? anaerobic
what are the starting materials for glycolysis? glucose, NAD+, ADP (ATP)
Products of aerobic glycolysis? Pyruvate, NADH, ATP, (ADP)
Products of anaerobic glycolysis? Lactate, ATP, NAD+
The two ATP producing reactions are catalyzed by? phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase
Is glycolysis Reversible? Overall, glycolysis has a large negative ΔG and cannot be reversed
site of glycolysis? cytosol
can acetyl coa be converted to pyruvate? no
under anaerobic conditions, what happens to pyruvate after glycolysis? reduced to lactate and exported from the cell
3 uses for pyruvate? (1)Pyruvate may be converted to oxaloacetate for TCA Cycle (or other) use (2)Pyruvate may be transaminated to alanine (3) Pyruvate may be used in fatty acid synthesis
what is the function of a dehydrogenase? Dehydrogenases catalyze different oxidation / reduction reactions
what happens if a dehydrogenase also oxidizes carbon to CO2? it is a decarboxylase as well as a dehydrogenase
for glycolysis to continue, what needs to happen to NADH? NADH needs to be reoxidized
Most pyruvate carbons enter the TCA cycle as what? acetyl coa
Pyruvate dehydrogenase does what? is pdh reversible? converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA; no
what is the first, activating reaction of glycolysis? production of Glucose-6-P
Production of Glucose-6-P is catalyzed by what? hexokinase or glucokinase
what tissues have low aerobic cell ATP production? eye, skin cells
in the fasted state, what can lactate be used for? gluconeogenesis
what cycle can be used in the anaerobic fasted state? cori cycle
NADH produced by glycolysis needs to be reoxidized for what two reasons? to maintain NAD+ availability and to utilize NADH electrons to produce ATP (e.g., linking the glycolytic process with aerobic metabolism.)
what happens In the glycerol-phosphate shuttle? electrons from cytosolic NADH are moved to mitochondrial FADH2
what happens in the malate-aspartate shuttle? transamination is used to achieve electron membrane crossing, NADH is produced
what occurs as LDH reduces pyruvate to lactate? Anaerobic reoxidation of NADH to NAD+
Aerobic NADH reoxidation to NAD+ occurs via what process? oxidative phosphorylation
what happens to the electrons in the malate-aspartate shuttle The electrons are placed on to a mitochondrial NAD+, forming NADH.
in hypoxia, what happens to 2,3-BPG in RBC's? increases
in what state can lactate be used for gluconeogenesis? fasted
what kind of molecule is PDH? decarboxylase
wnat enzyme adds phosphate from ATP to a molecule’s hydroxyl group? kinase
what enzyme relocates functional groups within a molecule to produce different isomers? isomerase
what enzyme catalyzes different oxidation / reduction reactions? dehydrogenase
in production of glucose-6-phosphate, what is required for energy and what is the catalyst? atp is required, hexokinase is the catalyst
Created by: mhassan
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