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Muscle Part 2

What causes red muscle appear red? It has more oxidative metabolism. It has more mitochondria that have a lot of heme-containg proteins that give a red color. Usually more vascular
Describe type 1 muscle type Slow fibers. Highly oxidative fibers. Has a lot of mitochondria.
Describe type 2a muscle type fast fibers and fast oxidative
Describe type 2x/2b muscle type Used for maximum strength (fast glycolytic). Recruited occasionally
Where are satellite cells located? Between the sarcolemma and basement membrane
Functions of satellite cells Muscle growth and regeneration. Muscles grows by hypertrophy.
What triggers satellite cells? Pain. Triggers proliferation cells and they add new myocnuclei that become peripherally located in pre-existent fibers. Satellite cells are released when muscle is damaged.
Describe Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (X-linked) Dystrophin is not expressed. Things can leak out and die. Regeneration occurs but nuclei are centrally located. Satellite cells are depleted and you get muscle wekaness. Diaphragm muscle gives out.
What are the conducting fibers of cardiac muscle? Cardiac myocytes, NOT nerves
Where is the nuclei located in the cardiac fibers? Centrally located (sometimes there are 2)
What constitutes a cardiac fiber? Cells joined together that are coupled by electrical coupling produced by gap junctions which are part of intercalated discs
Describe specialized cardiac myocytes Form the conducting system, have some striation and some myofibrils
What causes cardiac muscle beat? It beats spontaneously. It does not need innervation to beat. Beating is coordinated by coupling of cells
What color is cardiac muscle? Red, it has lots of mitochondria
What kind of junctions are in interculated discs? Macula adherens, sheet-like fascia adherens where thin filaments insert, Gap junctions
Why are cardiac muscle referred to as functional syncytium? They are electrically coupled even though they are single separate cells.
What is difference between cardiac muscle sliding filament and skeletal muscle? Cardiac muscle's strength of contraction can be modulated by post-translation modification. Phosphorylation can affect the ATPase of myosin. (Some troponins)
Describe T-tubules of cardiac muscle Very large in ventricles, smaller in atrium. No voltage sensor in T-tubules
What causes calcium to rise in cardiac muscle? Depolarization signals SR to release calcium. There is a calcium channel functionally that releases calcium across the t-tubule membrane. Calcium-induced calcium release
What does the atrial have that is not found in ventricles? Atrial granuales
Describe Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) Increased muscle activity can cause atrial vesicles to fuse with sarcolemma and release into blood. Travels to receptors and triggers release of factors that regulate blood pressue.
Are there satellite cells in the heart? No. No regenerated muscle. If muscle is damaged it is replaced by fat and connective tissue
Describe the cells and nuclei of smooth muscle The cells are spindle-shaped and have a single nuclei. Cells can be electrically coupled. It is innervated by parasympathetic/sympathetic
What do the thick, thin and intermediate filaments of smooth muscle contain? Thick: Myosin, Thin: Actin, Intermediate: Desmin and Vimentin
What inserts into the dense body of smooth muscle? Thin filaments
Where does calcium bind in smooth muscle? Binds to Calmodulin. NO tropnin. There is a protein called Caldesmin that sits on thin filament can bind calcium.
What type of binding mechanism does smooth muscle use as opposed to striated muscle? Myosin-linked mechanism as opposed to actin linked
Described the myosin-linked mechanism smooth muscle uses When calcium rises it binds to calmodulin. Calmodulin-calicium complex activates a myosin-light chain kinase. Tail of myosin blocks actin binding site and phosphorylation causes tail to expose it.
What triggers calcium binding proteins to be released into cytosol in smooth muscle? Depolarization or direct signaling at times
Describe Artherosclerosis In smooth muscles in walls of the arteries it can udergo excessive growth which cause closing off of the lumen of the blood vessel



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