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APUSH Unit 1.

Chapters 1-4

When did the landscape of North America become like we know it today? After the Ice Age
What formed the Great Lakes? Melting glaciers after the Ice Age
How did the first people get to North America? Ice Age exposed a land bridge that connected North America and Eurasia; nomads crossed over while following migratory game
The first people who came into North America by the land bridge are ancestors to ___________. Native Americans
Once the first people arrived in North America, how far did they spread? All the way to the southern tip of South America
How many people were thought to have already been living in the Americas when the Europeans came? 54 million
What ancient civilization lived in Peru? Incas
What ancient civilization lived in Central America? Mayans
What ancient civilization lived in Mexico? Aztecs
What ancient civilization participated in religious human sacrifice? Aztecs
What allowed for the size and sophistication of ancient Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America? Agriculture
What was the main crop grown by ancient Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America? Corn
What slowly turned nomadic Native American tribes in Mexico and South America into sedimentary civilizations? Agriculture
Who created irrigation? Pueblo peoples
What kind of structures did the Pueblo peoples in Rio Grande live in? Multi-storied, terraced buildings
True or false: Not counting Mexico, many Native American civilizations existed in North America. False. Most lived in South America and Mexico.
Name three important Native American civilizations in North America. Mound Builders, Mississippians, and Anasazis
When did the Mound Builders, Mississippians, and Anasazis fall into decline? 1300 AD
What crops are involved in 3-sister farming? Maize, beans, and corn
Type of farming where beans grow on the trellis of cornstalks and squash covers planting mounds to retain soil's moisture 3-sister farming
What area used 3-sister farming? Atlantic seaboard of North America
True or false: 3-sister farming produced some of North America's highest Native American population densities. True.
Give two examples of Native American civilizations that thrived because of 3-sister farming. Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee
What North American civilization created the closest approximation to the nation-states in Mexico and Peru? Iroquois
Closest North American approximation to nation-states of Mexico and Peru; had enough political and organizational skills to create and army Iroquois Confederacy
True or false: People living in non-civilization cultures (tribes) in North America were patriarchal. False. They were matriarchal.
Who originally discovered North America? Where were they? Norse (from Scandinavia); Newfoundland
What did the Norse name the part of North America they had discovered? Vinland
What happened to the Norse settlement in Vinland? It was eventually abandoned and forgotten
How was the New World "rediscovered" after Vinland was forgotten about? Found by European explorers looking for Africa and Asia
The largest percentage of the discoverers of the New World were what religion? Christian
Why were the Christian discoverers of the New World looking for Asia? They wanted to take back the Holy Land from Muslims; even when they failed, they liked the goods from Asia
Why were goods from Africa and Asia so expensive? How did this contribute to the discovery of the New World? The goods had to travel a very long way. It made people want to find a shorter route there or find new sources if possible.
Why is Marco Polo an indirect discoverer of the New World? His tales of China made many people want to go there, but they found the New World instead
Why did Europeans want to stop traveling home along the West coast of Africa? How did this lead to the discovery of the New World? The winds made it difficult to travel that way. They started going northwest from Africa.
Why did people want to travel to Sub-Saharan Africa? Gold
How did the reach-ability of Sub-Saharan have an eventual effect on the New World? It made slave trade there popular; origins of slave labor on plantations
Who was the first person to round the southernmost tip of Africa? Bartholomeu Dias
Who was the first European to reach India? Vasco de Gama
How did Spain becoming a unified country lead to the discovery of the New World? They wanted in on Asia's wealth, but Portugal controlled the African coast, so they had to go west to get there
Who was the first European to discover the New World? What country did they work for? Christopher Columbus; Spain
Where did Christopher Columbus think he was when he discovered the New World? Indies
Name two animals and two plants that were in the New World that had never before been seen in Europe. Iguanas, rattlesnakes; maize, tomatoes, beans, potatoes
True or false: The food found in the New World led to a population decrease in Europe and eventually Africa because the people were unable to digest it. False. It actually led to rapid population growth.
Name three animals Europe introduced to the New World. Cows, pigs, and horses
How did the Native Americans take advantage of the European introduction of horses into the New World? They used them to become highly mobile hunting societies.
Name two effects of Europeans introducing sugar cane to the Caribbean. It grew well there and sugar became part of the European diet; created need for slave labor
Name something besides food and animals the Europeans brought to the New World. What was its effect on the Native Americans? Diseases. The Native Americans couldn't fight it off and it was the biggest killer of Native Americans the Europeans had (more than violence or slavery)
Give an example of a disease the Europeans brought to the New World. Smallpox, malaria, yellow fever
What disease did the Native Americans give Europeans? Why is this important? Syphilis; first STD in Europe
Agreement between Spain and Portugal to split Americas Treaty of Tordesillas
What country got the most land in the Treaty of Tordesillas? Spain
What land did Portugal get in the Treaty of Tordesillas? Brazil
What country was the dominant exploring and conquering power in the 1500s? Spain
Who discovered the Pacific Ocean? Vasco Nunez Balboa
Whose crew sailed around the globe? Why wasn't he there with them? Ferdinand Magellan; he died en route
Who was the first European to explore Florida? What was he looking for? Juan Ponce de Leon; gold and Fountain of Youth
Who was the first European to explore as far west as Kansas? What was he looking for? Francisco Coronado; Golden Cities
Who was the first European to cross the Mississippi River? Hernando de Soto
Who defeated the Incas in Peru? Francisco Pizarro
What were the four effects of so much wealth going to Spain from the New World? Beginning of capitalism; beginning of modern commercial banking; spread of commerce and manufacturing; more trade with Asia
What did Spain use the Caribbean islands to do? Used as offshore bases to prepare to invade mainland Americas
System used by Spain to enslave Native Americans; government "gave" Spaniards Native Americans if they would Christianize them Encomienda System
European who conquered Aztecs Hernan Cortes
Aztec leader conquered by Hernan Cortes Monteczuma
Why did Monteczuma let Hernan Cortes into the capital unopposed? He believed he was a god
What two things wiped out the Aztec people? Disease; conquest
What did the Spaniards do to the surviving Aztecs after they conquered them? What race did this create? Intermarried; mestizos
Oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the US St. Augustine, FL
What was Spain's priority in New Mexico? Converting Native Americans to Christianity
What country colonized both Texas and California? Spain
After decades of religious turmoil, Protestantism finally gained permanent dominance in England after the succession to the throne of __________. Queen Elizabeth I
Imperial England and English soldiers developed a contemptuous attitude toward "natives" partly through their colonizing experiences in _____. Ireland
What was the effect of England's victory over the Spanish Armada? It gave England dominance of the Atlantic Ocean
What kind of changes was England undergoing during its first colonization efforts? Rapid economic and social changes
What occupation were many of the early Puritan settlers of America? Sheep farmers
What was England's first colony in America? Jamestown
How was Jamestown saved from failure? John Smith's leadership and John Rolfe's introduction of tobacco
Representative government was first introduced to America in the colony of ________. Virginia
Name one important difference between the founding of the Virginia and Maryland colonies. Virginia was founded mainly as an economic venture, while Maryland was intended partly to secure religious freedom for persecuted Catholics.
After the Act of Toleration, Maryland provided religious freedom for whom? All Protestants and Catholics
What was the primary reason that no new colonies were founded between 1634 and 1670? Civil war in England
The early conflicts between English settlers and the Indians near Jamestown were the basis for... The forced separation of the Indians into the reservation system
What Indian peoples most successfully adapted to the European colonists? Why? Interior Appalachian tribes. They had enough time, space, and people to create a "middle ground" of economic and cultural interaction.
What groups remained in the Appalachian Mountains as a "barrier" against the colonists after the defeat of the coastal Indian tribes in North Carolina? Creeks. Cherokees, and Iroquois
Religious dissenters and poor whites fleeing aristocratic Virginia went to what colony? North Carolina
The founders of Georgia were especially interested in what two causes? Prison reform and avoiding slavery
Nation where English Protestant rulers employed brutal tactics against the local Catholic population Ireland
Island colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriously disappeared Roanoke
Naval invaders defeated by English "sea dogs" Spanish Armada
Forerunner of the modern corporation that enabled investors to pool financial capital for colonial ventures Joint-stock company
Name of two wars fought between the English in Jamestown and the nearby Indian leader Anglo-Powhatan Wars
The harsh system of laws governing African labor, first developed in Barbados and later official adopted by South Carolina Barbados Slave Codes
Royal document granting a specified group the right to form a colony and guaranteeing settlers their rights as English citizens Charter
Penniless people obligated to engage in unpaid labor for a fixed number of years, usually in exchange for passage to the New World or other benefits Indentured servants
Powerful Indian confederation that dominated New York and the eastern Great Lakes area; comprised of several peoples Iroquois
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil Squatters
Term for a colony under direct control of the English king or queen Royal
The primary staple crop of early Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina Tobacco
The only southern colony with a slave majority South Carolina
The primary plantation crop of South Carolina Rice
A melting-pot town in early colonial Georgia Hamlet of Savannah
Founded as a haven for Roman Catholics Maryland
Indian leader who ruled tribes in the James River area of Virginia Powhatan
Harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians Lord De La Warr
British West Indian sugar colonies where large-scale plantations and slavery took root Jamaica and Barbados
Founded as a refuge for debtors by philanthropists Georgia
Colony that was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit" North Carolina
The unmarried ruler who established English Protestantism and fought the Catholic Spanish Elizabeth I
The Catholic aristocrat who sought to build a sanctuary for his fellow believers Lord Baltimore
The failed "lost colony" founded by Sir Walter Raleigh Roanoke
Riverbank site where Virginia Company settlers planted the first permanent English colony Jamestown
Colony that established a House of Burgesses in 1619 Virginia
Virginia leader "saved" by Pocohontas and the prominent settler who married her Smith and Rolfe
Elizabethan courtiers who failed in their attempt to found New World colonies Raleigh and Gilbert
Philanthropic soldier-statesman who founded the Georgia colony James Oglethorpe
Colony that turned to disease-resistant African slaves for labor in its extensive rice plantations South Carolina
What was the effect of the English law of primogeniture? Led many younger sons of the gentry to seek their fortunes in exploration and colonization
What was the effect of the enclosing of English pastures and cropland? Forced numerous laborers off the land and sent them looking for opportunities elsewhere
What was the effect of Lord De La Warr's use of brutal "Irish tactics" in Virginia? Led to the two Anglo-Powhatan wars that virtually exterminated Virginia's Indian population
What was the effect of the English government's persecution of Roman Catholics? Led Lord Baltimore to establish the Maryland colony
What was the effect of the slave codes in England's Barbados colony? Became the legal basis for slavery in North America
What was the effect of John Smith's stern leadership in Virginia? Forced gold-hungry colonists to work and saved them from total starvation
What was the effect of the English settlers' near destruction of small Indian tribes? Contributed to the formation of powerful Indian coalitions like the Iroquois and the Algonquins
What was the effect of the flight of poor farmers and religious dissenters from planter-run Virginia? Led to the founding of the independent-minded North Carolina colony
What was the effect of Georgia's unhealthy climate, restrictions on slavery, and vulnerability to Spanish attacks? Kept the buffer colony poor and largely unpopulated for a long time
What was the principal motivation shaping the earliest settlements in New England? Religious commitment and devotion
Which colony was larger and more economically prosperous: Plymouth or Massachusetts Bay? Massachusetts Bay
Why was the Massachusetts Bay Colony not a true democracy? Only church members could vote for the governor and the General Court.
What English colony had the most complete religious freedom? Rhode Island
Before the first English settlements in New England, Indians in the region had been devastated by.... Disease epidemics caused by contact with English fishermen
The Indian tribe that first encountered the Pilgrim colonists in New England were the... Wampanoags
True or false: The Puritan missionary efforts to convert Indians to Christianity were weak and mostly unsuccessful. True.
The last major Indian effort to halt New Englanders' encroachment on their lands King Philip's War
What was the first small step the colonies made to have intercolonial cooperation? Creation of the New England Confederation
Event that sparked the collapse of the Dominion of New England The Glorious Revolution in England
True or false: The Dutch colony of New Netherland was enjoyed peace and prosperity under the policies of the Dutch West India Co. True.
What was the name of the short-lived colony conquered by Dutch New Netherland? New Sweden
True or false: William Penn's colony of Pennsylvania had the fewest conflicts with neighboring Indian tribes out of all the colonies. False. It had almost continuous warfare with neighboring Indians.
Besides Pennsylvania, Quakers were also heavily involved in the early settlement of what two colonies? New Jersey and Delaware
True or false: The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware had more ethnic diversity than either New England or the southern colonies. True.
Sixteenth-century religious reform movement begun by Martin Luther Protestant Reformation
English Calvinists who sought a thorough cleansing from within the Church of England Puritans
Radical Calvinists who considered the Church of England so corrupt that they broke with it and formed their own independent churches Separatists
The shipboard agreement by the Pilgrim Fathers to establish a body politic and submit to majority rule Mayflower Compact
Puritans' term for their belief that Massachusetts Bay had a special arrangement with God to become a holy society Covenant
Charles I's political action that led to persecution of the Puritans and the formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company Dismissed Parliament
The two major nonfarming industries of Massachusetts Bay Fur trading and ship building
Anne Hutchinson's heretical belief that the truly saved need not obey human or divine law Antinomianism
Common fate of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson after they were convicted of heresy in Massachusetts Bay Banishment from colony
Villages where New England Indians who converted to Christianity were gathered Praying towns
Successful military action by the colonies united in the New England Confederation King Philip's War
English revolt that also led to the overthrow of the Dominion of New England in America Glorious Revolution
River valley where vast estates created an aristocratic landholding elite in New Netherland and New York Hudson
Required, sworn statements of loyalty or religious belief, resisted by Quakers Test oaths
Dominant religious group in Massachusetts Bay Puritans
Founder of the most tolerant and democratic of the middle colonies William Penn
Mass flight by religious dissidents from the persecutions of Archbishop Laud and Charles I Great Puritan Migration
Small colony that eventually merged into Massachusetts Bay Plymouth
Religious dissenter convicted of the heresy of antinomianism Anne Hutchinson
Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England's white colonists King Philip
German Monk who began Protestant Reformation Martin Luther
Religious group persecuted in Massachusetts and New York but not in Pennsylvania Quakers
Representive assembly of Massachusetts Bay General Court
Promoter of Massachusetts Bay as a holy "city upon a hill" John Winthrop
Conqueror of New Sweden who later lost New Netherland to the English Peter Stuyvesant
Reformer whose religious ideas inspired English Puritans, Scotch Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and Dutch Reformed John Calvin
Wampanoag chieftain who befriended English colonists Massasoit
Colony whose government sought to enforce God's law on believers and nonbelievers alike Massachusetts Bay Colony
Radical founder of the most tolerant New England colony Roger Williams
What was the effect of Charles I's persecution of the Puritans? Spurred formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company and mass migration to New England
What was the effect of Puritans' belief that their government was based on a covenant with God Led to restriction of political participation in colonial Massachusetts to "visible saints"
What was the effect of Puritan persecution of religious dissenters like Roger Williams? Led to the founding of Rhode Island as a haven for unorthodox faiths
What was the effect of the Glorious Revolution? Led to the overthrow of Andros's Dominion of New England
What was the effect of King Philip's War? Ended New England Indians' attempts to halt white expansion
What was the effect of the Dutch West India Company's search for quick profits? Meant that New Netherland was run as an authoritarian fur trading venture
What was the effect of Dutch and English creation of vast Hudson Valley estates? Secured political control of New York for a few aristocratic families
What was the effect of the English government's persecution of Quakers? Spurred William Penn's founding of Pennsylvania
What was the effect of William Penn's liberal religious and immigration policies? Encouraged large-scale foreign immigration to Pennsylvania
What was the effect of the middle colonies' cultivation of broad, fertile river valleys? Encouraged development of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey as rich, grain-growing "bread colonies"
What colony created the first "constitution"? What was it called? Connecticut; Fundamental Orders
What was the name of the last war before King Philip's War that resulted in weak colonist attempts to Christianize Indians? Pequot War
True or false: For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia had an approximately equal ratio of men and women. False. There were far more men than women.
What group benefited the most from the headright system? Landowners who paid the transatlantic passage for indentured servants
What was the primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion? The poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land
Why did African slavery become the primary form of labor after Bacon's Rebellion? Planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force.
What kind of culture developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America? A combination of several African and American cultures
Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by.... Wealthy planters
Why did it take a long time for a professional class of lawyers and financiers to develop in the south? There were few urban centers there.
Why did Puritan lawmakers in New England prevent married women from having property rights? They feared that separate property rights for women would undercut the unity of married couples.
True or false: Elementary education was mandatory for any New England town with more than fifty families. True
The development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting first started with... The Congregational Church of the Puritans
True or false: Chesapeake Bay colonists enjoyed longer lies and more stable families than those in New England. False. New England colonists had longer lives and more stable families.
A system in New England that provided baptism but not "full communion" into the church to people who had not had a conversion experience Half-Way Covenant
What group of people were most often accused of being witches in Salem? People from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market economy
What activity did English settlers partake in that most altered the character of the New England environment? Extensive introduction of livestock
Early Maryland and Virginia settlers had difficulty creating them and even more difficulty making them last Marriages
Primary cause of death among tobacco-growing settlers Disease
Immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor Indentured servants
Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who would pay trans-Atlantic passage for laborers Headright system
Fate of many of Nathaniel Bacon's followers, though not of Bacon himself Hanging
American colony that was home to the Newport slave market and many slave traders Rhode Island
English company that lost its monopoly of the slave trade Royal African Company
African American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa Gullah
Uprisings that occurred in both New York City and South Carolina Slave revolts
Wealthy extended clans like the Fitxhughs, Lees, and Washingtons that dominated politics in the most populous colony First families of Virginia
Approximate marriage age of most New England women Early 20s
The basic local political institution of New England, in which all freemen gathered to elect officials and debate local affairs Meetinghouse
Formula devised by Puritan ministers to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion Half-Way Covenant
Late seventeenth-century judicial event that inflamed popular feelings, led to the deaths of twenty people, and weakened the Puritan clergy's prestige Salem Witch Trials
Primary occupation of most seventeenth-century Americans Farmers
Major middle colonies rebellion that caused 33 deaths New York City slave revolt
Helped erase the earlier Puritan distinction between the converted "elect" and other members of society Half-Way Covenant
Small New York revolt that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants Leisler's Rebellion
Primary laborers in the early southern colonies until the 1680s Indentured servants
Experience for which human beings were branded and chained, and which only 80% survived Middle passage
Author of a novel about the early New England practice of requiring adulterers to wear the letter "A" Nathanael Hawthorne
West African religious rite, retained by African Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher Ringshout
Phenomena started by adolescent girls' accusations that ended with the deaths of 20 people Salem witch trials
Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements Chesapeake
The legacy of Puritan religion that inspired idealism and reform among later generations of Americans New England conscience
Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge Governor Berkely
The oldest college in the South William and Mary
Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly led to free-enterprise expansion of the business Royal African Company
Agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colonial government Nathaniel Bacon
The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry Harvard
What was the effect of the severe shortage of females in southern colonies? Produced large number of unattached males and weak family structure
What was the effect of poor white males' anger at their inability to acquire land or start families? Sparked Bacon's Rebellion
What was the effect of planters' fears of indentured servants' rebellion, couples with rising wages in England? Caused southern planters to switch from indentured servant labor to African slavery
What was the effect of the dramatic increase in colonial slave population after the 1680s? Inspired passage of strict "slave codes"
What was the effect of the growing proportion of females slaves in the Chesapeake region? Fostered stronger slave families and growth of slave population through natural reproduction of children
What was the effect of New Englanders' introduction of livestock and intensive agriculture? Reduced forests and damaged the soil
What was the effect of the healthier climate and more equal male-female ratio in New England? Produced high birthrates and a very stable family structure
What was the effect of the decline of religious devotion and in number of conversions in New England? Inspired the Half-Way Covenant and jeremaid preaching
What was the effect of unsettled New England social conditions and anxieties about the decline of the Puiritan religious heritage? Underlay the Salem witch persecutions
What was the effect of the rocky soil and harsh climate of New England? Thwarted success in agriculture but helped create the tough New England character
Common activity in which the colonists engaged to avoid the restrictive, unpopular Navigation laws Smuggling
Laws that only allowed the colonists to trade with Britain Navigation Laws
Created by: ejustice75
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