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Human Physiology Ch1

HP Homeostasis

physiology the study of how living organisms function
physiological genomics integration of physiology and molecular biology
pathophysiology when physiology goes wrong
levels of organization cells, tissues, organs, organ system
cells are the simplest structural units into which complex multicellular organisms can be divided and still retain the functions characteristic of life
cell differentation is the process of a cell transforming into a specialized cell from an unspecialized cell during development to perform a certain function
four major categories of cell functions muscle cells, neurons, epithelial cells and CT cells
thre types of muscle cells smooth, cardiac, skeletal
tissues are differentiated cells with common properties that come together
the four general types of tissue includes muscle tissue, nervous tissue, epithelial tissue and CT
organs are one type of tissue combined with another type of tissue
organ systems are groups of organs working together
the two types of involuntary tissues cardiac and smooth muscle
a neuron is a cell of the...that is sepcialized to... nervous system...initate, integrate and conduct electrical signals to other cells
epithelial cells are specialized for the selective secretion and absoprtion of ions and organic molecules and for protection
epithelial cell types squamous, cuboidal, columnar, ciliated
the basement membrane is and is made of... epithelial cells...extracellular proteins
CT cells connect, anchor and support the structures of the body
the side3 of the cell anchored ot the basement membrane is called the...and the side that faces the lumen is the... basolateral side...apical side
dense CT makes up tendons and ligaments
blood is considered a type of...because... fluid CT ...of its embryonic origins being similar to other CTs
the extracellular matrix is formed by some...and surrounds... CT...the immediate environment of each cell
the matrix serves two general functions 1) it provides...and 2) it transmits scaffolding for cellular in the form of chemical messengers to the cells to help regulate their activity, migration and growht/differentiation
the proteins of the extracellular matrix are made of...specifically... fibers...collagen and elastin
1/3 of all bodily proteins are made of collagen fibers
functional units are...example... similar subunits of organs...kidneys have nephrons
circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels and blood
the circulatory system functions to transport blood throughout the body
digestive system includes the mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestines, anus, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
the digestive system functions to digest and aborp nutrients and water and to eliminate waste
the endocrine system includes all glands or organs secreting hormones such as the pancreas, testes/ovaries, hypothalamus, thyroid, pituitary, paraythroids, adrenals, smotahc, small intestine, liver, adipose tissue, heart and pineal gland
the endocrine system functions to regulate and coordinate many activities in the body including growth, metabolism, reproduction, blood pressure, water and electrolyte balance
immue system includes the...and functions to... white blood cells, spleen and thymus...defend against pathogens
the integumentary system includes the...and functions to... skin...protect against injury and dehydration/against pathogens and it regulates body temp
the lymphatic system includes the...and functions to... lymph vessels and lymph nodes...collect extracellular fluid for return to circulation and it participates in immune defense
the musculoskeletal system includes the...and functions to... cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal, protect and move the body and it also produces blood cells
the nervous system condaints the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and ganglia and sense organs
the nervous system functions to regulate and coordinate many activities in the body, detect and respond to changes in the internal/external environment; states of consciousness; learning; memory;emotions
the reproductive system includes the testes, penis, ducts/glands, ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
the reproductive system functions to produce/transport sperm or produce eggs, privide a nutritive environment for baby
the respiratory system includes the... and functions to... nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, oxygen for co2 and regulates hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids
the urinary system includes the...and functions to... kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra....regulate plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts, water and organic wastes
two characteristics common to all forms of life are metabolism and replication
the internal environment of the body refers to the fluids that surround each cell and exists in the blood
extracellular fluid is the fluid that is outside of cells
what portion of the extracellular fluid is blood 20-25%
the portion of the blood in extracellular fluid is called plasma
interstitial fluid is the remaining...which lies... 75-80% of extracellular fluid...around and between cells
interstitium is the space containing interstitial fluid
the total volume of extracellular fluid is the sum of the plasma and interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid is the fluid inside the cells
maintaining differences in fluid composition across the cell membrane is an important way in which cells regulate their own activity
the smallest blood vessel is the capillary
who realized that a constant internal environment is required for good health and who coined the term? claude bernard and walter cannon
homeostasis is a...process in which there is a... dynamic...state of reasonable stable balance between physiological variables
dynamic constancy means that there may be considerable variation in glucose values over short time periods but less when they are averaged over long periods of time
homeostatic control systems react to changes in the extracellular fluid in order to correct the change
a steady state is a system in which a particular variable is not changing but in which energy is needed to maintain a constant condition
equilibrium is where a particular variable is not changing but no input of energy is required to maintain the constancy
set point the constant or normal variable
stability of an internal environmental variable is achieved by the balancing of inputs and outputs
negative feedback systems are where the variable being regulated brings about... increase...decrease...responses that tend to move the variable in the direction opposite of the direction of the original change
what plays a vital role in the checks and balances on most physiological variables? negative feedback
an enzyme is a protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
positive feedback loops accelerate a process leading to an explosive system such as in child birth
the set point of some variables regulated by homeostatic control systems can be reset, that is... physiologically raised or lowered
feedforward regulations... anticipate changes in regulated variables, improves the speed of bodys homeostatic responses and minimizes fluctuations in the level of the variable being regulated and sends out a signal to the brain before the change occurs
a reflex is a built in response to a particular stimulus
the pathway mediated a reflex is known as the reflex arc
the reflex arc contains a stimulus (detectable change), a receptor (detects the change), afferent pathway to the integrating center (compared to the set point where the signal is relayed) then the efferent pathway to the effector (where response is carried out)
a hormone is a type of chemical messenger secreted into the blood by cells of the endocrine system
a local homeostatic response are...and are initated by..and they induce biological responses..a change in external/internal alteration of cell activity with the net effect of counteracting the stimulus
unlike a reflex, the local homeostatic response occurs only in the area of the stimulus
target cells are the cells that hormone "messenger cells" go to
hormones are produced in and secreted from endocrine glands
neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that are released from endings of neurons onto other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells
neurotransmitters diffuse through...and is not released into the... extracellular fluid...blood
paracrine substances are chemical messengers that are involved in local communication between cells
autocrine substances do not... but are secreted into the...and then act upon... communicate between cells...extracellular fluid...the very cell that secreted it
in gap junction communication, molecules move from one cell to an adjacent cell without entering the extracellular fluid
juxtacrine is located in...and allow... cell membranes...similar cell membranes to link up
the term adaptation denotes a characteristic that favors survival in specific environments
acclimatization is the improved functioning of an already existing homeostatic system
developmental acclimatization occurs very early in life and may be irreversible
entrainment setting of the actual hours of the rhythm
free-running rhythm a cycle that persists in the absence of environmental cues
phase-shift rhythms resetting the internal clock aka jet lag
pacemaker is also known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus is the biological time clock
pineal gland secretes melatonin
the pool is the body's readily available quantity of a substance and is often identical to the amount present in the extracellular fluid
negative balance means that loss exceeds gain
positive balance means that gain exceeds loss
stable balance means gain equals loss
Created by: handrzej



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