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Introduction Test

Anatomy and Physiology

What is the basic structural unit of the body? The Cell.
List the body cavities and the organs in each: 1. Dorsal: brain, spinal cord2. Thoracic: trachea, esophagus, heart and lungs3. Abdominopelvic: liver, spleen, stomache, pancreas gallbladder, intestines, rectum, urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs
List the 5 cell parts and their functions: 1. Plasma membrane2. Cytoplasm3. Nucleus4. Mitochondria5. Endoplasmic Reticulum
Define Energy... The ability to do work
Define Metabolism... The total of all biochemical reactions in the body (catabolism and anabolism are two phases)
The __________ is the breaking down of materials and the production of energy. catabolism
The __________ is the building-up of materials and utilizes energy. Anabolism
What are the 4 types of tissue? 1. Epithelial2. Connective3. Muscle4. Nervous
Which types of tissue forms skin and membranes? Epithelial
Which type of tissue relays electrical impulses? Nervous Tissue
Which type of tissue contracts, enabling movement? Muscle tissue
What are the 3 types of muscle? Are they voluntary of involuntary? 1. Smooth Muscle:involuntary2. Skeletal Muscle: voluntary3. Cardiac Muscle: involuntary
Which systems' organs are all lined with mucous membrane? 1. Digestive system2. Urinary system3. Reproductive system4. Excretory system
Define Tissue: A group of cells that have a similar structure and function as a unit.
Define Organ: Two or more tissues that form a more complex structure that work together to perform a function
Define System: A group of organs that work together to accomplish a set of functions.
What is homeostasis? The maintenance of a steady state within the body's physical and chemical environment.
A "useful substance" is called a _______. Nutrient.
What is diffusion? The movement of ions, atoms or materials from an area of greater concentration to an area of greater concentration, until they are equal.
What is osmosis? The movement of water from an area of lesser density to an area of greater density.
What is the difference between diffusion and active transport? Diffusion requires no energy and active transport requires a carrier cell.
What are some examples of diffusion in every day life? 1. air freshner2. skunk3 dye in a beaker of water
List the three serous membranes which line the body's cavities: 1. Pleura -thoracic and lungs2. Pericardium - pericaridal cavity3. Peritoneum - abdominopelvic cavity
The systems of the body: (12) 1.Nervous 2.Digestive 3.Respiratory 4.Cardiovascular 5.Urinary 6.Reproductive 7.Skeletal 8. Blood 9.Muscular 10.Special senses 11. Integumentary 12.Endocrine
What is the function of the Nervous system? communication within the body / control of body activities
What is the function of the digestive system? Digestion, obsorption, and elimination
What is the function of the respiratory system? obtaining oxygen and elimination of co2
What is the function of the cardiovascular system? transportation with the heart as a pump
What is the function of the muscular system? movement by contraction
What is the function of the integumentary system? temperature regulation, protection, respiration and elimination, synthesis of chemicals
What is the function of the special senses? Vision, hearing, tasting, feeling, smelling
What is the function of the reproductive system? the production of new individuals
What is the function of the urinary systeme? filtration, regulation of water and blood pressure
What is the function of the blood system? transportation, immune system
What is the function of the endocrine system? control, initiate and regulate activity
The divisions of the abdomen? 1. right hypochondriac 2. Epigastric 3. Left hypochondriac 4.right lumbar 5.umbilical 6.left lumbar 7.right Illiac 8. hypogastric 9.left Illiac
Which term describes a tumor that is life threatening? Malignant
Whic term describes a tumor that is slower growing and not life threatenting? Benign
What is the term that designates the spread of a malignancy? Metastasis
What is the term for malignancies of the epithelial tissue? Carcinoma
What is the term for malignancies of the connective tissue? Sarcoma
Define Osteoma: Tumor of the bone
Define Myoma: Tumor of the muscle
Define Lipoma: fat tumor
Define Papilloma: Wart
Define Nevus: Mole
Define Glioma: Nerve tumor
Define adenoma: Gland tumor
Define Angioma: Vessel tumor
Fluid found within the cell is ____. Intracellular
Fluid found outside of a cell is called ____. Extracellular
Cytology is .... The study of cells.
Histology is... the study of tissue.
Oncology is ... the study of tumors.
Hematology is... the study of blood.
Pathology is... the study of disease.
Morphology is... the study of shape and form of living organisms.
The 4 major elements of the body are... 1. carbon 2. oxygen 3. hydrogen 4. nitrogen
Anatomical position is... Body erect with hands at sides palms forward.
Define superior: above, toward the head
Define inferior: below, toward the heel
Define Anterior/Ventral: Toward the front surface.
Define posterior/dorsal: toward the back surface
Define cranial: toward the head
Define caudal: Toward the coccyx
Define central: toward the trunk
Define peripheral: limbs, extremities
Define medial: vertical line down the center
Define lateral: toward the side
Define inner aspect: the other side of lateral on arms and legs for example...head does not have an inner aspect.
define supine: laying on the back, face-up
Define prone: Laying on the stomache, face-down
Define deep: not near the surface
Define superficial: at the surface or nearer the surface.
Define proximal: near the origin of the structure
Define distal: farther away the origin of the structure
What is afferent? Carring toward the thing
What is efferent? Leading away from the thing
Created by: erinmarie



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