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Digestive System

BYU Pdbio 305 Rhees Digestive System

digestive system simply a "long tube" going through the body which has the sole purpose of extracting useful nutrients from ingested food and fluids. Tube called alimentary canal consisting of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intesting and large intest
amylase chemical in mouth that breaks down starch (carb) as the first part of digestion
daily secretion of saliva and pH 800 to 1500 ml; pH 6-7
large parotid salivary gland
mumps viral desease of the parotid salivary gland
parotitis inflammation of parotid gland
ptyalocele cystic tumor of a salivary gland
how many taste buds and taste cells per bud 4000 buds; 30-100 taste cells/bud
achalasia lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) fails to relax
symptoms of achalasia dysphagia, substernal pain, food remain in esophagus for hours
cuases of achalasia abnormal parasympathetic stimulation, drinking cold liquids
management of achalasia careful diagnosis to rule out heart problems; surgery or use of a special dilating balloon
hiatal hernia protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax; sympoms include gastroesophageal reflux, dysphagia, heartburn, and epigastic pain
chyme blus of food, saliva, and gastric juices
zymogenic cells also known as chief cells; secrete pepsinogen which becomes pepsin which digests proteins
parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor; HCl kills bacteria and converts pepsinogen; intrinsic factor allos the ileum of the small intestine to absorb vitamin B12 which is required for erythopoiesis (pernicious anemia if lacking in intrinsic factor)
pyloric sphincter permits passage of chyme and prevents backflow of chyme
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter cuased by enlagement of circular muscle fibers. The major symptom is projectile vomiting (more common in males)
3 types of peptic ulcers gastric, duodenal, and esophageal
peptic ulcer HCl and pepsin eat away the lining of stomach, esophagus or duodenum
causes of ulcers stress, poor eating habits, excess vagal stimulation, hypersecretion of HCl or pepsin, hypersecretion of adrenal corticoids, lack of mucus, presence of irritating chemicals in the GI tract (steroids, anti-inflammatoryagents,caffeine,alcohol,tobacco,aspiri
% of population with ulcers 10
treatement of peptic ulcers surgery or diet or drugs
tagamet treatment for peptic ulcers; blocks the H2 receptors in the stomach and decrease secretion of HCl
Helicobacter pylori bacteria that may cause peptic ulcers
bacteria that may cause peptic ulcers Helicobacter pylori
how to kill H. Pylori three different antibiotics taken three times a day
vomiting relaxation of cardiac sphincter and strong contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. cuased by toxic food, gagging, too much digestion, intense pain, dizziness, sight or smell of unpleasant things
pH of gastric juice 2
pH of urine 5.7
pH of sweat 4-6.8
pH of saliva 6.4
pH of breast milk 7
pH of blood 7.4
pH of pancreatic juice 7-9
length of small intestine 20 feet
secretion of intestinal juice 1-2 liters/day
pH of intestinal juice 7.6
what % of digestion takes place in small intestine 90
three divisions of small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
what breaks down proteins peptidase
what breaks down carbs arbohydrates
what breaks down fats or lipids lipase
colon large intestine
three divisions of large intestine cecum, colon, anal canal
prevents backflow from large intestine into small intestine ileocecal valve
four sections of colon ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid (pelvic)
functions of large intestine absorption of water and electrolytes from food materials, ftorage and expulasion of feces from digestive
peristalsis parasympathetic constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or any other canal to move contents along
major laxatives bulk (bran and fiber), lubricants (mineral oil), mineral salts (Mg; they are not absorbed so they increase the osmotic pressure of the fecal material), irritants (speed up rate of preistalsis
peritonitis infection from burst appendix that spreads from the gut to the lining of the abdominal cavity
irritable bowel syndrom called spastic colitis; caused by emotional stress
colostomy abdominal exit is made for the colon
dysentery inflammation of intestinal mucosa with bleeding and mucus discarge with the stools
liver largest gland of the body, weighs 3 pounds
liver has lobules containig cells called hepatocytes that produce bile
8 functions of liver 1produce bile2store iron and copper3store glucose as glycogen4synthesis, storage, and release of vitamins5make fibrinogen and prothrombin for clotting6phagocytosis of foreign material in blood7detox of drugs and alcohol in blood8make plasma proteins
cirrhosis liver epithelium is replaced by connective tissue causing blockage of sinusoids (caused by alcohol or malnutrition)
hepatitis inflammation of liver from viruses, protozoa, and bacteria, or by toxic materials
jaundice yellow color of skin and mucous membranes due to excessive free bilirubin
gallbladder stores, concentrates, releases bile
amount of secretion daily by gallbladder 600-1000 ml/day
how much liquid can gallbladder store 30-70 ml
cystic duct from gallbladder to common bile duct
hepatic ducts from liver to common bile duct
sphincter of ampull from pancreas, liver and gallbladder into the duodenum
regulation of bile release (4 things) 1presence of fat in si releases cholecystokinin from intestinal mucosa which passes via blood to gallbladder and stimulated gallbladder contraction2rhythmic contraction of gallbladder3peristaltic waves of duodenum relax sphincter of ampulla4vagal stimulat
gallstones precipitation of cholesterol and bilirubin in bile; hyperconcentration is cuased by:1stasis of bile (too much absorption of water from bile)2high levels of cholesterol3inflammation of gallbladder
endocrine function of pancreas secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood
exocrine function of pancreas secretion of digestive enzymes into the si in response to the presence of chyme in the upper si
amount of pancreatic fluid released each day and pH 1200-1500 ml; pH of 7.1-8.2
pancreatic juice enzymes amylase, lipase, peptidases or proteolytic (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase), bicarbonate
trypsinogen s activated to trypsin by enterokinase enzyme
nervous control of gastric secretion increased parasympathetic activity, secretion, contraction , release of gastrin (hormone)
hormonal control of gastric secretion gastrin is a hormone released by G cells in the stomach
what stimulates the secretion of gastrin food entering stomach, partially digested proteins, alcohol, caffeine, histamine, calcium
gastrin causes the followin increased gastric juice secretion and peristalsis
two hormones secreted by the si that regulate pancreatic secretion secretin and cholecystokinin
secretin secreted by S cells in SI because of drop in pH in duodenum b/c of too much acid; secretin travles in blood to pancreas which secretes bicarbonate
CCK cholocystokinin in pancreatic secretion regulation released when proteins, fats, and fatty acids enter si. It stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice rich in enzymes to aid digestion
CCK cholecystokinin in bile secretion released from I cells in duodenum and upper jejunal mucosa when fats and proteins enter si. stimulates contraction of gallbladder and relaes of bile to digest lipids
anabolism construiction of complex molecules from simple building blocks
catabolism breaking down process
essential nutrients cannot be formed in the body so they must be ingested. Ex: amino acids, vitamins, minerals
nervous tissue can only use what as energy source glucose
breakdown of fats fat-bile->fat globules-lipase->glycerol and fatty acids
breakdown of protein protein->polypeptides->small polypeptides and aa->aa=amino acids
rate of transport of glucose into most cells in the body is greatly increased by insulin
glycogen form of storing glucose; many glucose molecules stuck together end to end
process of making glycogen from glucose is called glycogenesis
glycogenolysis breaking down glycogen to glucose molecules
glycolysis splitting glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
cell respiration when O2 is present, the two pyruvic acid molecules are converted to 2 acetyl coenzyme A's by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation
krebs cycle citric acid cycle; acetyl portion of acetyl CoA is degraded to CO2 and H atoms; occur in matrix of mitochondria;
electron transport chain oxidation of hydrogen atoms
summary of ATP production glycolysis 2+krebs cycle 2+electron transport chain 32=36
% of caloried in our diet from fats 40-45; in addition, an average of 20-50% of the carbs ingested are converted into fatty acids
when large quantities of fatty acids are broken down into acetyl CoA, 2 molecules of Acteyl CoA condense to from one molecule of acetoacetic acid
can proteins be converted into acetyl CoA yes
Created by: droid



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