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Endocrine System

Endocrine System- Martini

What is the purpose of the endocrine system? It functions with the nervous system to monitor and maintain homeostasis.
What is homeostasis? Constant internal environment.
The regulating systems in the body are? The nervous system and endocrine system
What is the function of the nervous system? Detect changes in the internal and external environment, to bring about changes to maintain homeostasis.
What system provides short-term crisis management? The nervous system
What kind of modulation is the endocrine system under? Amplitude-modulated
What type of modulation is the nervous system under? Frequency- modulated
What does amplitude modulated mean? The amount
What does frequency modulated mean? How often
What does it mean when we say the endocrine system is amplitude modulated? The amount of hormone released gives you a differenct outcome
What does it mean when we say the nervous system is frequency modulated? How often gives you the outcome; once you hit the threshold, it must be redone to get the outcome
What is the difference in speed of the modulation in the endocrine system and the nervous system? The endocrine is slower and longer lasting
What does the endocrine system deal with? hormones
What does the nervous system deal with? neurotransmitters
What is an endocrine gland and its function? ductless, secretes hormones into tissue fluid, from which is diffuses into the blood
What is tissue fluid? solution which surrounds cells in the body
What is an exocrine gland and its function? secretes products thru ducts into a lumen or onto a surface
What does "endo- " and "exo-" mean? Endo- means internal; Exo- means external
What are examples of exocrine gland products? Sweat, oil, tears, spit
What is a ligand? (ligand comes from latin ligare = to bind) its a molecule that binds to another, normally refers to a soluble molecule such as a hormone or nerurotransmitter that binds to a receptor.
What is a hormone? A chemical messenger that is released in tissue and transported in the blood stream to alter the activities of a specific cells in other tissues
Where do hormones take action? at their target tissue
Do hormones have acion in the glands? No, they do not have action where they are produced.
Where are hormones secreted? in the interstitial cells
What takes hormones to tissues? blood
Where are hormones produced? in endocrine glands
Hormones are relased from endocrine glands into? the interstitial fluid where they diffuse into the blood and travel tro target tissues
What action occurs when hormones meet their target tissues? A specific response occurs
What are circulating hormones? hormones that pass into the blood and act on distant target cells
What are local hormones? Other chemical messengers (not circulating hormones) produced by endocrine glands
Two examples of local hormones are? paracrines and autocrines
What is a paracrine? "para-" meaning near by/ next to; a local hormone that DIFFUSES to their targets; these chemical messengers are not transported thru blood
What is an autocrine? a local hormone that effects the same cell or type of cells that release them
What are chemical messengers? hormones, neurohormones, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and parahormones
What is a neurohormone? they are produced by neurons and behave like hormones
What are 3 ways to classify hormones? Based on 1. Function 2. Solubility 3. Chemical Structure
Based on function the response of a hormone is? kinetic or metabolic
Kinetic regulates? movement
Metabolic regulates? the total sum of chemical reactions occuring in the body cells
Based on solubility hormones are classified as? lipid soluble, water soluble, or eicosanoids
What are lipids? Hydrophobic, molecules such as fats, oils, wax, steroids, cholesterol
What are lipid soluble horrmones? Steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide
What are water soluble hormones? catecholamines, peptide and protien hormones
What does eicosanoid mean? its a collective term for oxygenated derivatives of three different 20-carbon essential fatty acids; are lipid derivatives of arachidonic acid
Based on solubility what are eicosanoid hormones? prostoglandins and leukotriens
Based on chemical structure hormones are classified as? lipid derived, amino acid derived, and peptide hormones
What are lipid derived hormones? Eicosanoids and steroid hormones
What are eicosaoids hormones? leukotrienes, prostoglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclins
Steroid hormones are structurally similar to? cholesterol
What are steroid hormones? androgens, estrogens, progestins, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids,androgens, calcitrol
What are the steroid hormones located in the gonads? androgens, estrogens, progestins
What are steroid hormones located in the adrenal cortex? mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids, and androgens
What are steroid hormones located in the kidneys? Calcitrol
Define a lipid derivative carbon rings and side chains built from fatty acids and cholesterol
Define amino acid derivatives (aka biogenic amines) small molecules structurally related to individual amino acids, are made from tyrosine and tryptophan
What is tyrosine and tryptophan? tyrosine is a single amino acid and tryptophan is another amino acid
What are tyrosine derived hormones? amino acid derivatives, broken into two groups thyroid hormones and catecholamines
What are thyroid hormones? tyrosine and amino acid derivatives, lipid soluble, therefore not soluble in water include T3 - TRIODOTHYRONINE and T4 - THYROXINE
What does the number stand for in regards to T3 and T4? the number of atomes of iodine in a molecule
What are catecholamines? tyrosine derived, amino acid derived include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
What is a tryptophan derived hormone? an amino acid derivative, the hormone melatonin
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by? the adrenal medulla
Melatonin is secreted by? the pineal gland
Created by: nicole4rc



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